Non-invasive electromagnetic skin patch sensor to measure intracranial fluid–volume shifts

Thumbnail Image
Griffith, Jacob L.
Cluff, Kim
Eckerman, Brandon
Aldrich, Jessica
Becker, Ryan A.
Moore-Jansen, Peer H.
Patterson, Jeremy A.
Issue Date
Dielectrics , Health monitoring systems , Intracranial pressure sensors , Microwave sensors , Point-of-care technologies , Volume measurement , Wearable sensors
Research Projects
Organizational Units
Journal Issue
Jacob Griffith, Kim Cluff, Brandon Eckerman, Jessica Aldrich, Ryan Becker, Peer Moore-Jansen, and Jeremy Patterson. 2018. Non-Invasive electromagnetic skinp atch sensor to measure intracranial fluid–volume shifts. Sensors (Basel). 2018 Apr; 18(4): 1022.

Elevated intracranial fluid volume can drive intracranial pressure increases, which can potentially result in numerous neurological complications or death. This study’s focus was to develop a passive skin patch sensor for the head that would non-invasively measure cranial fluid volume shifts. The sensor consists of a single baseline component configured into a rectangular planar spiral with a self-resonant frequency response when impinged upon by external radio frequency sweeps. Fluid volume changes (10 mL increments) were detected through cranial bone using the sensor on a dry human skull model. Preliminary human tests utilized two sensors to determine feasibility of detecting fluid volume shifts in the complex environment of the human body. The correlation between fluid volume changes and shifts in the first resonance frequency using the dry human skull was classified as a second order polynomial with R2 = 0.97. During preliminary and secondary human tests, a ≈24 MHz and an average of ≈45.07 MHz shifts in the principal resonant frequency were measured respectively, corresponding to the induced cephalad bio-fluid shifts. This electromagnetic resonant sensor may provide a non-invasive method to monitor shifts in fluid volume and assist with medical scenarios including stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, concussion, or monitoring intracranial pressure.

Table of Contents
Copyright © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
MDPI, Basel, Switzerland
Book Title
Sensors: an Open Access Journal;
Sensors;v.8, iss.4
PubMed ID