Paying for retirement: Sex differences in inclusion in employer-provided retirement plans
Wright R. 2012. "Paying for retirement: Sex differences in inclusion in employer-provided retirement plans". Gerontologist. 52 (2): 231-244.
Purpose: This study examines sex differences among Baby Boom workers in the likelihood of coverage by an employer-provided retirement plan. Design and Methods: This study used a sample of Baby Boom workers drawn from the 2009 Current Population Survey. Independent variables were selected to replicate as closely as possible those in two 1995 studies of retired workers and pension plans. Three new variables were added to reflect major social and economic shifts since 1995. Logistic regression was performed to analyze the effect of the independent variables on the likelihood of retirement plan coverage. Results: In this cohort, the proportions of men and women included in employer-provided retirement plans were almost the same. The overall odds of women being included in a plan were only slightly less than even and in certain cases were significantly higher than the odds for men. Predictors of inclusion that were most important for both women and men were minority status, employment in a core industry or in a government position, educational level, and marital status. Implications: Although a much larger group of workers is included in retirement plans than in previous studies, and Baby Boom women are less disadvantaged in this regard than women in earlier studies, minority and immigrant workers continue to be disadvantaged, and the security of government retirement plans may be weakening with current economic difficulties.