A direct and rapid method to determine cyanide in urine by capillary electrophoresis

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Authors
Zhang, Qiyang
Maddukuri, Naveen
Gong, Maojun
Advisors
Issue Date
2015-10-02
Type
Article
Keywords
Cyanide , Urine , Naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde , Glycine , Capillary electrophoresis , Fluorescence
Research Projects
Organizational Units
Journal Issue
Citation
Zhang, Qiyang; Maddukuri, Naveen; Gong, Maojun. 2015. A direct and rapid method to determine cyanide in urine by capillary electrophoresis. Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1414, 2 October 2015:pp 158–162
Abstract

Cyanides are poisonous chemicals that widely exist in nature and industrial processes as well as accidental fires. Rapid and accurate determination of cyanide exposure would facilitate forensic investigation, medical diagnosis, and chronic cyanide monitoring. Here, a rapid and direct method was developed for the determination of cyanide ions in urinary samples. This technique was based on an integrated capillary electrophoresis system coupled with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Cyanide ions were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) and a primary amine (glycine) for LIF detection. Three separate reagents, NDA, glycine, and cyanide sample, were mixed online, which secured uniform conditions between samples for cyanide derivatization and reduced the risk of precipitation formation of mixtures. Conditions were optimized; the derivatization was completed in 2-4min, and the separation was observed in 25s. The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.0 nM at 3-fold signal-to-noise ratio for standard cyanide in buffer. The cyanide levels in urine samples from smokers and non-smokers were determined by using the method of standard addition, which demonstrated significant difference of cyanide levels in urinary samples from the two groups of people. The developed method was rapid and accurate, and is anticipated to be applicable to cyanide detection in waste water with appropriate modification.

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Publisher
Elsevier B.V.
Journal
Book Title
Series
Journal of Chromatography A;v.1414
PubMed ID
DOI
ISSN
0021-9673
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