Aquatic exercise for better living on land: Impact of shallow-water exercise on older Japanese women for performance of Activities of Daily Living (ADL)

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Sanders, Mary E.
Islam, Mohammod M.
Naruse, Aiko
Takeshima, Nobuo
Rogers, Michael E.

Sanders, Mary E.; Islam, Mohammod M.; Naruse, Aiko; Takeshima, Nobuo; and Rogers, Michael E. (2016) "Aquatic Exercise for Better Living on Land: Impact of Shallow-Water Exercise on Older Japanese Women for Performance of Activities of Daily Living (ADL)," International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education: Vol. 10: No. 1, Article 1. DOI:


Twenty-six Japanese women (70.5 yr) self-selected water exercise (WEX) (n=13), or control (CON) (n=13) for 12 weeks. WEX was performed 60-minutes/day, 3 days/week with warm-up, cool-down stretch, ADL exercises, and cardiovascular/muscular endurance in 30°C water at a xiphoid level depth. CON continued their current activity/nutrition patterns. Compared to CON, WEX improved (p<.05) functional fitness and balance measures including arm curl (22%), chair stand (21%), 8-feet up & go (13%), chair sit/reach (50%), and 12-min walk (15%). No significant changes in sway velocity (SV) or limits of stability (LOS) were seen for either group. This shallow water exercise improved land-based ADL for older women but not balance. ADL tasks associated with balance did improve which may have indicated enhanced motor control.

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