Wearable sensing system for noninvasive monitoring of intracranial biofluid shifts in aerospace applications

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Griffith, Jacob L.
Cluff, Kim
Downes, Grant M.
Eckerman, Brandon
Bhandari, Subash
Loflin, Benjamin E.
Becker, Ryan A.
Alruwaili, Fayez H.
Mohammed, Noor

Griffith JL, Cluff K, Downes GM, Eckerman B, Bhandari S, Loflin BE, Becker R, Alruwaili F, Mohammed N. Wearable Sensing System for NonInvasive Monitoring of Intracranial BioFluid Shifts in Aerospace Applications. Sensors. 2023; 23(2):985. https://doi.org/10.3390/s23020985


The alteration of the hydrostatic pressure gradient in the human body has been associated with changes in human physiology, including abnormal blood flow, syncope, and visual impairment. The focus of this study was to evaluate changes in the resonant frequency of a wearable electromagnetic resonant skin patch sensor during simulated physiological changes observed in aerospace applications. Simulated microgravity was induced in eight healthy human participants (n = 8), and the implementation of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) countermeasures was induced in four healthy human participants (n = 4). The average shift in resonant frequency was −13.76 ± 6.49 MHz for simulated microgravity with a shift in intracranial pressure (ICP) of 9.53 ± 1.32 mmHg, and a shift of 8.80 ± 5.2097 MHz for LBNP with a shift in ICP of approximately −5.83 ± 2.76 mmHg. The constructed regression model to explain the variance in shifts in ICP using the shifts in resonant frequency (R2 = 0.97) resulted in a root mean square error of 1.24. This work demonstrates a strong correlation between sensor signal response and shifts in ICP. Furthermore, this study establishes a foundation for future work integrating wearable sensors with alert systems and countermeasure recommendations for pilots and astronauts.

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