Adolescents' perceptions of print cigarette advertising: a case for counteradvertising
Hawkins, Katherine, and Audrey Curtis Hane. 2000. "Adolescents' Perceptions of Print Cigarette Advertising: A Case for Counteradvertising". Journal of Health Communication. 5 (1): 83-96.
Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of serious chronic disease. The majority of smokers begin smoking during their adolescent years. Print cigarette advertising plays an influential role in encouraging young people to smoke. Eight hundred and forty-three middle/junior high-school-aged students from a large midwestern metropolitan area participated in this study of adolescents' recognition of and belief in messages associated with print cigarette advertising. Results indicated no significant difference between smokers and nonsmokers in their recognition of messages associated with print cigarette advertising. However, smokers and nonsmokers differed significantly in the degree to which they believed the messages communicated by print cigarette advertising. Consistent with social cognitive theory, students who smoke at least occasionally were more likely to believe messages conveyed by print cigarette ads than were students who had never smoked. Implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed, including specification of guidelines for effective counteradvertising.