The MMPI-2's restructured clinical demoralization scale: exploring correlates of demoralization in a psychiatric inpatient sample and the implications for aging
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This study examined selected Restructured Clinical Scales of the MMPI-2 in a sample of 436 adult psychiatric inpatients. The primary focus of the study was to further the understanding of the concept of demoralization which has been alluded to in psychological literature for over 50 years. The first theorist to shed more light on this psychological concept was Jerome Frank. In 1974 Frank wrote a book titled "Persuasion and Healing in Psychotherapy" where he referred to demoralization as an occurrence that happens when someone believes that they consistently have an inability to handle life stressors. Of central interest to the author is the relationship between demoralization and age, and the author is not aware of any research studies examining differences in levels of demoralization with regard to age. Given that demoralization is consequently linked with its sister traits anxiety and depression the study assessed the relationship of all three constructs to age with the central theoretical focus on demoralization. A secondary focus was to examine the relationship of the MMPI-2-RC demoralization scale and its sister scales Low Positive Emotions (RC2), High Negative Affect (RC7), and suicidal ideation (SIS) with age and ancillary demographic variables of gender, marital status, length of hospital stay, education, and discharge diagnosis. This study indicated that the relationship between age and demoralization is largely negative, indicating that younger patients are more likely to endorse symptoms of demoralization. The study findings also indicate that younger patients were more likely to endorse symptoms of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Wichita State University, Fairmount College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Dept. of Psychology