Hydration in older adults: is there a difference in self-reported healthy older adults and those with dysphagia as measured using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis?
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) was used to investigate body composition and hydration of older residents (65+ years) in a Continuing Care Retirement Community (CCRC). BIA is a safe, non-invasive, efficient, valid, and reliable tool that can document hydration in older adults. Participants were women who viewed themselves as healthy (n = 16) and those with dysphagia (n = 8). Participants with dysphagia were expected to be less well hydrated than those who did not have swallowing difficulties. All were tested at the same time of day after a 3-hour fast. Independent-samples t-test analyses showed no significant differences between Total Body Water (TBW), Fat Free Mass (FFM), Fat Mass (FM), and percent Body Fat (% BF) for the two groups. When compared to previously published data for age-matched women, the TBW values of the two participant groups were notably less. FFM values for both groups of participants also were less than expected. FM and % BF values were notably greater than expected. The presence of dysphagia did not appear to have an adverse effect on hydration level. This may reflect the limited number of participants with dysphagia. Alternatively, results may suggest that residential facilities are unique environments in which all residents can be considered at-risk for dehydration. If true, results support the efforts of CCRC administrators to promote person-centered care to optimize residents' health and quality of life, including adequate hydration, and suggest that BIA could be a valuable tool to facilitate the early identification of residents at-risk for dehydration. KEYWORDS: Bioelectrical impedance analysis; dehydration; quality of life; residential facilities
Thesis (M.A.)--Wichita State University, College of Health Professions, Dept. of Communication Sciences and Disorders