Effect of torso flexion on the lumbar torso extensor muscle sagittal plane moment arms
Jorgensen, Michael J.
Marras, William S.
Waters, Thomas R.
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The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society. 2003 Sep-Oct; 3(5): 363-9.
Accurate anatomical inputs for biomechanical models are necessary for valid estimates of internal loading. The magnitude of the moment arm of the lumbar erector muscle group is known to vary as a function of such variables as gender. Anatomical evidence indicates that the moment arms decrease during torso flexion. However, moment arm estimates in biomechanical models that account for individual variability have been derived from imaging studies from supine postures.
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