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Generation of gas-phase VO2+, VOOH+, and VO2+-nitrile complex ions by electrospray ionization and collision-induced dissociation
Leavitt, Christopher M.
Groenewold, Gary S.
Gresham, Garold L.
Van Stipdonk, Michael J.
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The journal of physical chemistry. A. 2006 Oct 19; 110(41): 11627-35.
Cationic metal species normally function as Lewis acids, accepting electron density from bound electron-donating ligands, but they can be induced to function as electron donors relative to dioxygen by careful control of the oxidation state and ligand field. In this study, cationic vanadium(IV) oxohydroxy complexes were induced to function as Lewis bases, as demonstrated by addition of O2 to an undercoordinated metal center. Gas-phase complex ions containing the vanadyl (VO2+), vanadyl hydroxide (VOOH+), or vanadium(V) dioxo (VO2+) cation and nitrile (acetonitrile, propionitrile, butyronitrile, or benzonitrile) ligands were generated by electrospray ionization (ESI) for study by multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry. The principal species generated by ESI were complexes with the formula [VO(L)n]2+, where L represents the respective nitrile ligands and n=4 and 5. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of [VO(L)5]2+ eliminated a single nitrile ligand to produce [VO(L)4]2+. Two distinct fragmentation pathways were observed for the subsequent dissociation of [VO(L)4]2+. The first involved the elimination of a second nitrile ligand to generate [VO(L)3]2+, which then added neutral H2O via an association reaction that occurred for all undercoordinated vanadium complexes. The second [UO(L)4]2+ fragmentation pathway led instead to the formation of [VOOH(L)2]+ through collisions with gas-phase H2O and concomitant losses of L and [L+H]+. CID of [VOOH(L)2]+ caused the elimination of a single nitrile ligand to generate [VOOH(L)]+, which rapidly added O2 (in addition to H2O) by a gas-phase association reaction. CID of [VONO3(L)2]+, generated from spray solutions created by mixing VOSO4 and Ba(NO3)2 (and precipitation of BaSO4), caused elimination of NO2 to produce [VO2(L)2]+. CID of [VO2(L)2]+ produced elimination of a single nitrile ligand to form [VO2(L)]+, a V(V) analogue to the O2-reactive V(IV) species [VOOH(L)]+; however, this V(V) complex was unreactive with O2, which indicates the requirement for an unpaired electron in the metal valence shell for O2 addition. In general, the [VO2(L)2]+ species required higher collisions energies to liberate the nitrile ligand, suggesting that they are more strongly bound than the [VOOH(L)2]+ counterparts.
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