Oxidative cell damage in Kat-sod assay of oxyhalides as inorganic disinfection by-products and their occurrence by ozonation
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Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology. 2000 Jan; 38(1): 1-6.
Nine oxyhalides as possible inorganic disinfection by-products were tested for oxidative cell damage by Kat-sod assay with E. coli mutant strains deficient in the active oxygen-scavenging enzymes. Chlorine dioxide, chlorite, and iodate were highly cytotoxic, whereas in the presence of cysteine, bromate (BrO3-) and metaperiodate (IO4-) showed more growth inhibition toward the superoxide dismutase-deficient strains than the wild strain. BrO3- also showed oxidative mutagenicity with cysteine or glutathione ethyl ester in S. typhimurium TA 100. To identify oxyhalides formed by ozonation of raw water containing sea water, the occurrence of ozonation by-products of bromide and iodide was investigated. The results indicate that BrO3- is toxicologically one of the most remarkable oxyhalides detectable in drinking water because IO4- was not detected in the ozonated solution of iodide, and the ozonation condition to lower BrO3- is to keep it neutral in the presence of ammonium ion.
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