Synthesis and characterization of 5-Fu loaded magnetic nanocomposite spheres for advanced drug delivery
Wamocha, Humphrey Lusenaka
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Magnetic targeted drug delivery, the science concerned with the design, characterization and use of magnetic materials as carriers of therapeutic agents presents promising advances in the study of drug delivery and pharmacokinetics. This is made possible by use of nanotechnology in the areas, such as engineering, biotechnology, chemistry and other sciences to develop new materials and mechanisms that can be channeled to improve the way diseases are identified and treated. The aim of this research was to introduce the use of cobalt zinc ferrite (Co₀․₅Zn₀․₅Fe₂O₄) nanoparticles as magnetic materials that could be formulated and used for targeted drug delivery, and compare the results with the commonly used magnetite. This study focused on the preparation, characterization, particle flow characteristics and cytotoxicity evaluation of magnetic materials. Cobalt zinc ferrite and magnetite (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles (~10 nm) were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation of initial reagents. An oil-in-oil emulsion/solvent evaporation technique was used to embed the magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) plus a sample drug in a biodegradable polymer poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) to produce a magnetic nanocomposite (MNC) spheres. MNC spheres with different MNP concentrations (10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%) were prepared and characterized to determine their physical and magnetic properties by various techniques including; X-ray diffraction, dynamic laser light scattering (DLLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mossbauer spectroscopy(MS) and superconducting quantum interference magnetometer (SQUID). The hydrodynamic flow characteristics of MNP and MNC spheres were also evaluated using experimental techniques. The cytotoxicity effects of these materials on normal cells were further determined from in-vitro cell trials. Results show that MNC spheres (200 nm to 1.1 μm in diameter) retained superparamagnetic properties when embedded with Co₀․₅Zn₀․₅Fe₂O₄ nanoparticles, and had a blocking temperature ranging from 120K to 140K and a saturation magnetization above 2,000 Oe. The magnetic properties of the embedded Co₀․₅Zn₀․₅Fe₂O₄ were close to those of magnetite. The effectiveness of these nanomaterials as carrier particles in drug delivery under various flow conditions depended on the vessel diameter, strength of magnetic field and concentration of MNP. An increase in the number of MNC captured could be achieved by increasing the MNP content, vessel diameter and magnetic field at optimal flow conditions. Cytotoxicity testing showed that the use of cobalt zinc ferrite delivery systems was viable though with some identifiable constraints when compared with magnetite. A reduction in sample concentration improved cell viability significantly making it potentially useful in drug delivery.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Wichita State University, College of Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering