Deep Learning–Based Advances
Pakhrin, Subash C.
KC, Dukka B.
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Pakhrin, S.C., Pokharel, S., Saigo, H., KC, D.B. (2022). Deep Learning–Based Advances In Protein Posttranslational Modification Site and Protein Cleavage Prediction. In: KC, D.B. (eds) Computational Methods for Predicting Post-Translational Modification Sites. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 2499. Humana, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-2317-6_15
Posttranslational modification (PTM ) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes which gives rise to enormous proteomic diversity. PTM mostly comes in two flavors: covalent modification to polypeptide chain and proteolytic cleavage. Understanding and characterization of PTM is a fundamental step toward understanding the underpinning of biology. Recent advances in experimental approaches, mainly mass-spectrometry-based approaches, have immensely helped in obtaining and characterizing PTMs. However, experimental approaches are not enough to understand and characterize more than 450 different types of PTMs and complementary computational approaches are becoming popular. Recently, due to the various advancements in the field of Deep Learning (DL), along with the explosion of applications of DL to various fields, the field of computational prediction of PTM has also witnessed the development of a plethora of deep learning (DL)-based approaches. In this book chapter, we first review some recent DL-based approaches in the field of PTM site prediction. In addition, we also review the recent advances in the not-so-studied PTM , that is, proteolytic cleavage predictions. We describe advances in PTM prediction by highlighting the Deep learning architecture, feature encoding, novelty of the approaches, and availability of the tools/approaches. Finally, we provide an outlook and possible future research directions for DL-based approaches for PTM prediction.
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