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dc.contributor.authorDozier, Crystal A.
dc.contributor.authorKim, Doyong
dc.contributor.authorRussell, David H.
dc.identifier.citationDozier, Crystal A.; Kim, Doyong; Russell, David H. 2020. Chemical residue evidence in Leon Plain pottery from the Toyah phase (1300–1650 CE) in the American Southern Plains. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, vol. 32:art. no. 102450en_US
dc.descriptionClick on the DOI link to access the article (may not be free).en_US
dc.description.abstractArchaeological remains from the Toyah Phase (1300-1650 CE), prior to Spanish colonization of the American Southern Plains in central and south Texas, suggest that foraging indigenous peoples maintained a feasting economy. Mind-altering beverages, such as caffeinated or alcoholic drinks, are a common attraction of feasts worldwide and throughout human history. Fifty-four sherds of Leon Plain ware from six archaeological sites were chemically analyzed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Six samples contained biomarkers suggestive of caffeinated beverage(s)—either black drink, Yaupon Holly (Ilex vomitoria) ceremonial tea, or chocolate, derived from cacao (Theobroma cacao or bicolor). Three of those six samples had duplicate results over three trials. Six different samples contained succinic and tartaric acid, sometimes associated with grape wine, but no samples maintained those results over two trials. These results suggest that Leon Plain may have sometimes been used to contain mind-altering substances, such as black drink.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipStudent Research Grant (2017) from the Council of Texas Archeologists.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesJournal of Archaeological Science: Reports;
dc.subjectArchaeology of wineen_US
dc.subjectBlack drinken_US
dc.subjectPlains archaeologyen_US
dc.subjectTexas archaeologyen_US
dc.titleChemical residue evidence in Leon Plain pottery from the Toyah phase (1300–1650 CE) in the American Southern Plainsen_US
dc.rights.holder© 2020 Elsevier Ltden_US

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