Alignment of personality source trait factors from questionnaire and observer ratings: The theory of instrument-free patterns
Cattell, Raymond B.
Pierson, George R.
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Cattell, R. B., Pierson, G. R., Finkbeiner, C. (1976). Alignment of Personality Source Trait Factors from Questionnaires and Observer Ratings: The Theory of Instrument-Free Patterns. Multivariate Experimental Clinical Research, 2(2), 63-88.
Testing the hypothesis of "indifference of indicator," i.e., that instrument-free source traits exist as factors when different media are jointly factored, the investigators scored young adults on 32 observer-rating and 32 questionnaire trait markers, known from previous work as markers of personality factors in each medium. The Q-data consisted of A and B forms of the 16 P.F. The L-data was gathered according the six principles considered essential to sound rating, e.g., no fewer than eight peer raters for each subject. The reliabilities (equivalence coefficient) were about equally good for the two media. Factor analysis revealed 23 factors - the number now commonly recognized in the normal personality sphere. At the unique resolution position of maximum simple structure, the congruence coefficients of (a) L variable loading patterns with previous L-factoring, (b) Q markers with previous Q-factorings, and (c) both kinds of markers with the only available previous Q-L factoring, were highly significant, showing that each of at least the largest sixteen primary source traits has simultaneous, matched expression extending across Q and L media. The possibility that some of the remaining and unidentified seven factors are pure instrument factors is discussed.