Theory and measurement of self-esteem
Dickstein, E. (1973). Theory and Measurement of Self-Esteem. The Journal of Multivariate Experimental Personality and Clinical Psychology, 1(1), 23-30.
An earlier paper (Dickstein, 1972) identified five forms of self-concept. The nature self-esteem was postulated to vary with age, with a different type of self-esteem being appropriate to each form of the self-concept. On the basis of this theory, a measure of self-esteem for school-age children was designed. The rationale for the new measure was derived from the writings of James (1890) and Mead (1934). The self-concept of the school-age child falls within the from of self called the "self-as-object." Through his recognition of other objects and people in the world, the child comes, in time, to see himself as an object. The self is created through experience, and knowledge of the self is limited to that which the child learns through interaction with others. For the individual whose self-concept falls at this level, self-esteem should be based on his perceived success at the various thing he does, with his overall level of self-esteem being determined by the degree to which he perceives himself to be successful at those particular activities which are most important to him.