Gender-based violence: risk and protective factors for depressive symptoms among couples in the Kavango region, Northern Namibia
Kalomo, Eveline N.
Lightfoot, Elizabeth B.
Lee, Kyoung Hag
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Eveline Ndinelao Kalomo, Elizabeth Lightfoot, Kyoung Hag Lee & Rachel Freeman (2019) Gender-based violence: Risk and protective factors for depressive symptoms among couples in the Kavango region, Northern Namibia, Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment
Gender-based violence (GBV) has been associated with many negative mental health outcomes, including depression. This study sought to explore the relationship between protective factors (social support, self-esteem, income, and employment) and risk factors (alcohol consumption and diagnosis of HIV) on depressive symptoms among survivors of GBV in rural northern Namibia, Africa. This cross-sectional study collected data from 156 RuKwangali speaking survivors from the Kavango region. Results indicated that study participants had high levels of depression and that higher levels of self-esteem correlated with lower levels of depressive symptoms. Additionally, alcohol use was related with higher levels of depressive symptoms among study participants. These findings suggest the need for more sustained attention to the systematic screening and assessment for depression and alcohol use among GBV survivors is needed.
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