Cultural values at the individual level and the malleability of ways of knowing
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Schommer-Aikins, Marlene; Easter, Marilyn. 2014. Cultural values at the individual level and the malleability of ways of knowing. Educational Psychology, vol. 34:no. 2:ppg. 171-184
This research tested the relationship between individuals cultural values and the malleability in their ways of knowing in two social contexts. Two hundred and ninety-two college students majoring in either business or social sciences initially received two priming conditions (two weeks apart) where they reflected on either their in-group or their out-group. Then, their adherences to ways of knowing: separate knowing (SK, being a devil's advocate) and connected knowing (CK, being perspective taker) and cultural values: collectivist-horizontal, collectivist-vertical, individualist-horizontal and individualist-vertical were assessed. Analyses revealed a priming condition X ways of knowing X cultural values interaction. When students had their in-group in mind, their CK score was significantly higher than their SK score in all cultural categories. When students had their out-group in mind, their CK scores decreased to comparable levels of their SK score in all cultural values except horizontal-collectivist. Students with a dominant collectivist-horizontal values maintained higher CK scores compared with their SK scores in the out-group condition. Implications for perspective-taking and critical thinking are discussed.
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