Automotive rear-end crash simulations according to fmvss 310r for evaluation of structural damage and prediction of occupant potential injuries through linear regression
The automotive industry has been constantly working to improve the safety of the passengers in cars by researching and upgrading the various features already in use. Although the frequency of rear-end collisions stands third among all the other types, the injuries sustained by the occupants are about one third. This indicates the need for improvement in vehicle crashworthiness and occupant protection during various rear-end collisions. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS), which are issued by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), includes some regulations concerning rear impacts, but they essentially cover the vehicle structural responses rather than the potential injuries to the passenger. Therefore, research is needed directed toward enhancing passenger safety during car rear impacts. The objective of this research is to investigate the structural responses of the car itself and the potential injuries sustained by the passenger in the event of a rear-end collision. Correlation between the structural damage (in terms of interior intrusion, exterior intrusion, and seat acceleration), and the occupant responses (in terms of neck loads and neck moment) are examined using linear regression. LS-DYNA simulations were performed three different classes of cars, according to FMVSS 301R standards for fuel tank integrity in rear-impacts to achieve this. This is done first without the occupant and then with the occupant to compare the injuries sustained by the occupant and to predict the injuries just by examining the crash test structural response. Also, the crash test simulations are conducted on other similar cars to verify these predictions. The results of this study indicate that utilizing this methodology, the potential injuries to the occupants in car rear-impacts can be predicted for the car models for which seats may not be installed.
Thesis (M.S.)-- Wichita State University, College of Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering