Passive self resonant skin patch sensor to monitor cardiac intraventricular stroke volume using electromagnetic properties of blood
Alruwaili, Fayez H.
Griffith, Jacob L.
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F. Alruwaili, K. Cluff, J. Griffith and H. Farhoud, "Passive Self Resonant Skin Patch Sensor to Monitor Cardiac Intraventricular Stroke Volume Using Electromagnetic Properties of Blood," in IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 1-9, 2018, Art no. 1900709
This paper focuses on the development of a passive, lightweight skin patch sensor that can measure fluid volume changes in the heart in a non-invasive, point-of-care setting. The wearable sensor is an electromagnetic, self-resonant sensor configured into a specific pattern to formulate its three passive elements (resistance, capacitance, and inductance). In an animal model, a bladder was inserted into the left ventricle (LV) of a bovine heart, and fluid was injected using a syringe to simulate stoke volume (SV). In a human study, to assess the dynamic fluid volume changes of the heart in real time, the sensor frequency response was obtained from a participant in a 30 degrees head-up tilt (HUT), 10 degrees HUT, supine, and 10 degrees head-down tilt positions over time. In the animal model, an 80-mL fluid volume change in the LV resulted in a downward frequency shift of 80.16 kHz. In the human study, there was a patterned frequency shift over time which correlated with ventricular volume changes in the heart during the cardiac cycle. Statistical analysis showed a linear correlation R-2 = 0.98 and 0.87 between the frequency shifts and fluid volume changes in the LV of the bovine heart and human participant, respectively. In addition, the patch sensor detected heart rate in a continuous manner with a 0.179% relative error compared to electrocardiography. These results provide promising data regarding the ability of the patch sensor to be a potential technology for SV monitoring in a non-invasive, continuous, and non-clinical setting.
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