Biological responses of preosteoblasts to particulate and ion forms of Co-Cr alloy
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Yang S, Zhang K, Li F, Jiang J, Jia T, Yang S-Y. 2015. Biological responses of preosteoblasts to particulate and ion forms of Co-Cr alloy. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 2015:103A:3564–3571
This study compared the particulate and ion forms of a cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr) alloy on the differentiation/activation of preosteoblasts. Mouse preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) were cultured in an osteoblast-induction medium in the presence of particulate and ion forms of a Co-Cr alloy, followed by cell proliferation and cytotoxicity evaluations. The maturation and function of osteoblasts were assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay and related gene expressions. Both particulate and ion forms of the metals significantly reduced the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, cells challenged with high concentrations of particles and ions exhibited a marked cytotoxic effect and diminished expression of ALP. Real-time (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) data have suggested that cells with Co-Cr particles dramatically promoted over-expression of monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), whereas Co2+ ions treatment predominately up-regulated expressions of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), and down-regulated expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and Osterix (Osx). Overall, this study provides evidence that both Co-Cr alloy particles and metal ions interfered with the MC3T3-E1 cells for their growth, maturation, and functions. Further, Co-Cr particles exhibited stronger effects on inflammatory mediators, while metal ions showed more influence on inhibition of osteoblast differentiation and promotion of osteoclastogenesis.
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