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dc.contributor.authorMckenna, Duane D.
dc.contributor.authorWild, Alexander L.
dc.contributor.authorKanda, Kojun
dc.contributor.authorBellamy, Charles L.
dc.contributor.authorBeutel, Rolf G.
dc.contributor.authorCaterino, Michael S.
dc.contributor.authorFarnum, Charles W.
dc.contributor.authorHawks, David C.
dc.contributor.authorIvie, Michael A.
dc.contributor.authorJameson, Mary Liz
dc.contributor.authorLeschen, Richard A. B.
dc.contributor.authorMarvaldi, Adriana E.
dc.contributor.authorMchugh, Joseph V.
dc.contributor.authorNewton, Alfred F.
dc.contributor.authorRobertson, James A.
dc.contributor.authorThayer, Margaret K.
dc.contributor.authorWhiting, Michael F.
dc.contributor.authorLawrence, John F.
dc.contributor.authorSlipinski, Adam
dc.contributor.authorMaddison, David R.
dc.contributor.authorFarrell, Brian D.
dc.date.accessioned2015-10-08T15:22:28Z
dc.date.available2015-10-08T15:22:28Z
dc.date.issued2015-10
dc.identifier.citationFarnum, Charles W.; Hawks, David C.; Ivie, Michael A.; Jameson, Mary Liz; Leschen, Richard A. B.; Marvaldi, Adriana E.; Mchugh, Joseph V.; Newton, Alfred F.; Robertson, James A.; Thayer, Margaret K.; Whiting, Michael F.; Lawrence, John F.; Slipinski, Adam; Maddison, David R.; Farrell, Brian D. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology, vol. 40:no. 4:pp 835–880en_US
dc.identifier.issn0307-6970
dc.identifier.otherWOS:000360760000009
dc.identifier.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1111/syen.12132
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10057/11540
dc.description© 2015 The Authors. Systematic Entomology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Entomological Society This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons AttributionߚNonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.en_US
dc.description.abstractHere we present a phylogeny of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) based on DNA sequence data from eight nuclear genes, including six single-copy nuclear protein-coding genes, for 367 species representing 172 of 183 extant families. Our results refine existing knowledge of relationships among major groups of beetles. Strepsiptera was confirmed as sister to Coleoptera and each of the suborders of Coleoptera was recovered as monophyletic. Interrelationships among the suborders, namely Polyphaga (Adephaga (Archostemata, Myxophaga)), in our study differ from previous studies. Adephaga comprised two clades corresponding to Hydradephaga and Geadephaga. The series and superfamilies of Polyphaga were mostly monophyletic. The traditional Cucujoidea were recovered in three distantly related clades. Lymexyloidea was recovered within Tenebrionoidea. Several of the series and superfamilies of Polyphaga received moderate to maximal clade support in most analyses, for example Buprestoidea, Chrysomeloidea, Coccinelloidea, Cucujiformia, Curculionoidea, Dascilloidea, Elateroidea, Histeroidea and Hydrophiloidea. However, many of the relationships within Polyphaga lacked compatible resolution under maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference, and/or lacked consistently strong nodal support. Overall, we recovered slightly younger estimated divergence times than previous studies for most groups of beetles. The ordinal split between Coleoptera and Strepsiptera was estimated to have occurred in the Early Permian. Crown Coleoptera appeared in the Late Permian, and only one or two lineages survived the end-Permian mass extinction, with stem group representatives of all four suborders appearing by the end of the Triassic. The basal split in Polyphaga was estimated to have occurred in the Triassic, with the stem groups of most series and superfamilies originating during the Triassic or Jurassic. Most extant families of beetles were estimated to have Cretaceous origins. Overall, Coleoptera experienced an increase in diversification rate compared to the rest of Neuropteroidea. Furthermore, 10 family-level clades, all in suborder Polyphaga, were identified as having experienced significant increases in diversification rate. These include most beetle species with phytophagous habits, but also several groups not typically or primarily associated with plants. Most of these groups originated in the Cretaceous, which is also when a majority of the most species-rich beetle families first appeared. An additional 12 clades showed evidence for significant decreases in diversification rate. These clades are species-poor in the Modern fauna, but collectively exhibit diverse trophic habits. The apparent success of beetles, as measured by species numbers, may result from their associations with widespread and diverse substrates - especially plants, but also including fungi, wood and leaf litter - but what facilitated these associations in the first place or has allowed these associations to flourish likely varies within and between lineages. Our results provide a uniquely well-resolved temporal and phylogenetic framework for studying patterns of innovation and diversification in Coleoptera, and a foundation for further sampling and resolution of the beetle tree of life.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipUnited States National Science Foundation (AToL: COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: Assembling the Beetle Tree of Life) to B.F. (EF-0531768), D.M. (EF-0531754), and M.W. (EF-0531665), an NSF grant (DEB-0118749) to M.T. and A.N., the Marshall Field III Fund (Field Museum of Natural History), NSF grant (DEB-0715705) to A.N. and A.S., NSF grant DEB-0447694 to M.C., NSF grant 1355169 and University of Memphis Lab Setup funds to D.McK., and by grants from the National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET) and the National Agency of Promotion of Science (ANPCyT) of Argentina, to A. M. (PIP 00162 and PICT 2011-2573).en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherJohn Wiley & Sons Ltden_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesSystematic Entomology;v.40:no.4
dc.subject18s RDNA sequencesen_US
dc.subjectPhylogenetic analysisen_US
dc.subjectMolecular phylogeneticsen_US
dc.subjectScarabaeoidea coleopteraen_US
dc.subjectHolometabolous insectsen_US
dc.subjectMeruidae coleopteraen_US
dc.subjectLarval morphologyen_US
dc.subjectDivergence timesen_US
dc.subjectRribosomal-rnaen_US
dc.subjectCompositional heterogeneityen_US
dc.titleThe beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolutionen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.rights.holder© 2015 The Authors. Systematic Entomologyen_US


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