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dc.contributor.authorRogers, Thomas R.
dc.contributor.authorRussell, F. Leland
dc.date.accessioned2014-12-03T21:29:56Z
dc.date.available2014-12-03T21:29:56Z
dc.date.issued2014-06-18
dc.identifier.citationRogers, T. R., Russell, F. L. (2014), Historical patterns of oak population expansion in the Chautauqua Hills, Kansas. Journal of Biogeography, vol. 41:no. 11:pp 2105–2114en_US
dc.identifier.issn0305-0270
dc.identifier.otherWOS:000343867200009
dc.identifier.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12360
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10057/11003
dc.descriptionClick on the DOI link to access the article (may not be free).en_US
dc.description.abstractAimRates of tree population expansion have increased in many North American landscapes that were mosaics of grasslands, savannas and woodlands historically. Consequences of woodland expansion include reduced economic return from grazing and changes in native biodiversity, but causes of woodland expansion are poorly understood. We address historical timing of blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica) and post oak (Quercus stellata) population expansion in tree-grass ecosystems, roles of climate and land use in driving this expansion, and future stability of these woodlands. LocationThe Cross Timbers ecosystem in Kansas, USA. MethodsUsing increment cores, we quantified blackjack oak and post oak age structures in four woodlands on sites that were not wooded in the 1860s. We compared timing of oak regeneration with climate fluctuations (using the Palmer drought severity index) and land-use history. We quantified tree species composition within 5-m radii of sampled oaks. ResultsRecruitment of both oak species increased between 1925 and 1945. Modal age classes recruited from 1935 to 1960. Recruitment was associated with dry intervals at the two sites with north- or east-facing aspects. This association was driven by blackjack oak recruitment in dry intervals. Woodlands on the sites with south- and west-facing aspects contained only oaks, whereas those on the sites with north- and east-facing aspects contained saplings of fire-intolerant, shade-tolerant tree species. Main conclusionsOur results contribute to growing evidence for woodland expansion in the region during dry climate intervals. The association between drought and recruitment was influenced by slope aspect and was more pronounced in the less fire-tolerant oak species. Although woodland expansion coincided with regional increases in fire frequency, drought and greater use of prescribed burning are likely to have reduced fire intensities by reducing fuel loads. These oak woodlands, which have developed during the 20th century, appear to form stable communities on xeric slopes but to be undergoing succession towards a mesophytic tree community on mesic slopes.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipKansas Academy of Science Student Research Grant Program and the High Plains Regional Climate Center for funding.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherJohn Wiley & Sons, Inc.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesJournal of Biogeography;v.41:no.11
dc.subjectAge structureen_US
dc.subjectCross timbersen_US
dc.subjectFire ecologyen_US
dc.subjectKansasen_US
dc.subjectMesophicationen_US
dc.subjectQuercus marilandicaen_US
dc.subjectQuercus stellataen_US
dc.subjectTree recruitmenten_US
dc.subjectWoodland dynamicsen_US
dc.subjectWoody plant encroachmenten_US
dc.titleHistorical patterns of oak population expansion in the Chautauqua Hills, Kansasen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.rights.holder© 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd


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