Multivariate Experimental Clinical Research, v.10 no.1

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    Sex and age interactions with the structured interview global Type A behavior pattern and hostility in the prediction of health behaviors
    (Wichita State University, Department of Psychology, 1991) Dielman, T. E.; Leech, S. L.; Miller, M. V.; Moss, G. E.
    A health-behavior survey and the Type A structured Interview (SI) were administered to a general-population sample of 903 adults. Self-reports of nine health behaviors were used as dependent variables. Multivariate analyses of variance followed by two series of three-way analyses of variance were conducted by age, sex, and SI-assessed global Type A (or hostility). There were main effects and/or two-way interactions for all of the dependent variables. Global Type A behavior and hostility were positively related to higher frequency-quantity of alcohol use, more frequently exceeding the speed limit, fewer hours of sleep, and less-frequent breakfast. Three-way interactions indicated that men under the age of 60 who were classified as Type Al reported a higher frequency-quantity of alcohol use than any other subgroup. The highest percentage of current cigarette smokers was among the high-hostility young men. Implications for behavior-change programs and research are discussed.
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    Book review: "The 16 PF: Personality in Depth" by Heather B. Cattell, 1989
    (Wichita State University, Department of Psychology, 1991) Wallbrown, Fred H.
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    Pilots who crash: Personality constructs underlying accident prone behavior of fighter pilots
    (Wichita State University, Department of Psychology, 1991) Lardent, Charles L., Jr.
    Personality factors have been shown to be related to accident prone behavior, and generic profiles and regression equations have been developed to identify those more likely to experience behaviors associated with accidents events. Using the 16PF, the ultimate purpose of this study is to assess differences between a group of F-4 Phantom fighter pilots who "crashed" (N=47) versus another deemed to be "safe" (N=44). Several subsidiary objectives were established using comparative profiles of four pilot groups: airline, airline/military fighter, general military, and F-4 fighter. The study reveals that: (a) pilot personality in general differs substantially from that of the general population; (b) there are both striking similarities-and dissimilarities between the four pilot groups; (c) there is only minimal consistency or agreement between pilot personality profiles and the prediction equation for generic "freedom from accidents:" the airline pilots show the greatest consistency and the F-4 pilots the least; and (d) most important, five significant personality factor differences discriminate the "safe" from the "crashed" F-4 pilot group. Using set correlation techniques, it is shown that 27% (33% attenuated) of the variance in "crashing" is explained by personality differences and that over 70% of the pilots are correctly classified.
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    Item analysis of the subscales in the Eight State Questionnaire (8SQ): Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses
    (Wichita State University, Department of Psychology, 1991) Boyle, Gregory J.
    The Eight State Questionnaire (8SQ) is a comprehensive self-report inventory which has been used in numerous studies of multidimensional mood states. The 8SQ has been useful in clinical situations for evaluating the efficacy of various therapeutic interventions, as well as in other contexts. The instrument takes about 20-25 minutes to administer, thereby enhancing its usefulness as a quick measure of transitory, constantly fluctuating mood states. Nevertheless, examination of the congeneric factor structure of the 8SQ subscales suggests that a number of the items are complex, contributing significantly to more than one subscale dimension. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses have failed to provide substantial support for the existing subscale structure. Hence, further research should be directed toward refining the 8SQ item composition, by replacing items which contribute inadequately to the respective subscales, and/ or those which are factorially complex. Such "progressive rectification" (Cattell's term) should result in a more psychometrically efficient instrument, which is characterized by greater factor purity and reduced intercorrelations, than is currently evident.