HPS Research Publications

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    Aquatic exercise for better living on land: Impact of shallow-water exercise on older Japanese women for performance of Activities of Daily Living (ADL)
    (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2016-12-28) Sanders, Mary E.; Islam, Mohammod M.; Naruse, Aiko; Takeshima, Nobuo; Rogers, Michael E.
    Twenty-six Japanese women (70.5 yr) self-selected water exercise (WEX) (n=13), or control (CON) (n=13) for 12 weeks. WEX was performed 60-minutes/day, 3 days/week with warm-up, cool-down stretch, ADL exercises, and cardiovascular/muscular endurance in 30°C water at a xiphoid level depth. CON continued their current activity/nutrition patterns. Compared to CON, WEX improved (p<.05) functional fitness and balance measures including arm curl (22%), chair stand (21%), 8-feet up & go (13%), chair sit/reach (50%), and 12-min walk (15%). No significant changes in sway velocity (SV) or limits of stability (LOS) were seen for either group. This shallow water exercise improved land-based ADL for older women but not balance. ADL tasks associated with balance did improve which may have indicated enhanced motor control.
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    Test-Retest reliability and preliminary reliable change estimates for Sway Balance tests administered remotely in community-dwelling adults
    (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022-11-02) Caccese, Jaclyn B.; Teel, Elizabeth; Van Patten, Ryan; Muzeau, Mélissa A.; Iverson, Grant L.; VanRavenhorst-Bell, Heidi A.
    Objective: Impaired balance and postural stability can occur with advanced age, following traumatic brain injury, in association with neurological disorders and diseases, and as the result of acute or chronic orthopedic problems. The remote assessment of balance and postural stability could be of value in clinical practice and research. We examined the test-retest reliability and reliable change estimates for Sway Balance Mobile Application tests (Sway Medical, Tulsa OK, USA) administered remotely from the participant's home. Method: Primarily young, healthy community-dwelling adults completed Sway Balance Mobile Application tests remotely on their personal mobile devices once per week for three consecutive weeks while being supervised with a video-based virtual connection. Sway Balance tests include five stances (i.e., feet together, tandem right foot forward, tandem left foot forward, single leg right foot, single leg left foot), which are averaged to compute a Sway Balance composite score from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better postural stability. We examined test-retest reliability (measured with intraclass correlation coefficients, ICCs) and preliminary reliable change estimates for 70%, 80%, and 90% confidence intervals. Results: Participants included 55 healthy adults (ages?=?26.7?±?9.9 years, interquartile range?=?20–30, range?=?18–58; 38 [69%] women). Test-retest reliability for the Sway Balance composite score across three weeks was.88. Test-retest reliability for individual stances ranged from 62 to 83 (all ps?
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    Test–retest reliability and reliable change estimates for four mobile cognitive tests administered virtually in community-dwelling adults
    (Frontiers Media, 2021-10-21) van Patten, Ryan V.; Iverson, Grant L.; Muzeau, Mélissa A.; VanRavenhorst-Bell, Heidi A.
    Objective: Remote mobile cognitive testing (MCT) is an expanding area of research, but psychometric data supporting these measures are limited. We provide preliminary data on test–retest reliability and reliable change estimates in four MCTs from SWAY Medical, Inc. Methods: Fifty-five adults from the U.S. Midwest completed the MCTs remotely on their personal mobile devices once per week for 3 consecutive weeks, while being supervised with a video-based virtual connection. The cognitive assessment measured simple reaction time (“Reaction Time”), go/no-go response inhibition (“Impulse Control”), timed visual processing (“Inspection Time”), and working memory (“Working Memory”). For each cognitive test except Working Memory, we analyzed both millisecond (ms) responses and an overall SWAY composite score. Results: The mean age of the sample was 26.69years (SD=9.89; range=18–58). Of the 55 adults, 38 (69.1%) were women and 49 (89.1%) used an iPhone. Friedman’s ANOVAs examining differences across testing sessions were nonsignificant (ps>0.31). Intraclass correlations for Weeks 1–3 were: Reaction Time (ms): 0.83, Reaction Time (SWAY): 0.83, Impulse Control (ms): 0.68, Impulse Control (SWAY): 0.80, Inspection Time (ms): 0.75, Inspection Time (SWAY): 0.75, and Working Memory (SWAY): 0.88. Intraclass correlations for Weeks 1–2 were: Reaction Time (ms): 0.75, Reaction Time (SWAY): 0.74, Impulse Control (ms): 0.60, Impulse Control (SWAY): 0.76, Inspection Time (ms): 0.79, Inspection Time (SWAY): 0.79, and Working Memory (SWAY): 0.83. Natural distributions of difference scores were calculated and reliable change estimates are presented for 70, 80, and 90% CIs. Conclusion: Test–retest reliability was adequate or better for the MCTs in this virtual remote testing study. Reliable change estimates allow for the determination of whether a particular level of improvement or decline in performance is within the range of probable measurement error. Additional reliability and validity data are needed in other age groups.
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    Accuracy of the SWAY mobile cognitive assessment application
    (North American Sports Medicine Institute, 2021) VanRavenhorst-Bell, Heidi A.; Muzeau, Melissa A.; Luinstra, Lindsay; Goering, Jared; Amick, Ryan Zackary
    Background Mobile electronic devices have become integral tools in addressing the need for portable assessment of cognitive function following neurocognitive/motor injury. SWAY Medical, Inc., has employed mobile device motion-based technology in the SWAY Cognitive Assessment (SWAY CA) application to assess cognitive function. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess whether the SWAY CA application (reaction time, impulse control and inspective time) was able to reliably operate on different mobile devices and operating systems (iOS, Android). The study further sought to assess the validity of the SWAY CA application against the FDA approved ImPACT QT mobile device application. Study Design Original Research, observational study of validity. Methods 88 healthy, young adults, 18 to 48 years (mean= 22.09 ± sd=4.47 years) completed four, randomized and counter-balanced, reaction time tests (2- SWAY RT, 2- ImPACT QT) using different operating systems (iOS, Android) of 4 randomly assigned mobile devices. Results ANOVAs reported the SWAY CA application (reaction time, impulse control, inspection time) operated reliably with iPhone 6S, Samsung Galaxy S9, and iPad Pro 5 mobile devices (p > 0.05), respectively. Google Pixel 3 reliability with SWAY CA application remains undetermined. SWAY CA simple reaction motion measures were in agreement (r = -0.46 to 0.22, p ≤ 0.05) with several ImPACT QT reaction time measures. SWAY CA impulse control and inspection time measures are weakly correlated (r = -0.25 to -0.46, p ≤ 0.05) with five ImPACT QT reaction time measures. Conclusion The motion-based SWAY CA mobile device application appears to reliably operate when being administered on different mobile devices and software operating systems. Furthermore, the SWAY CA application appears to be comparable to the ImPACT QT and serve as a valid tool for assessing reaction time measures.
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    Resistance training in older adults
    (Springer, Cham, 2021-10-19) Sañudo, Borja; Rogers, Michael E.
    Interventions based on resistance training have been shown to counteract muscle disuse and therefore combat muscle strength and muscle mass loss, with positive effects on physical functioning, mobility, independence, psychological well-being, and quality of life. Unfortunately, a low percentage of older adults meet international recommendations on resistance training probably due to fear, health concerns, pain, fatigue, or lack of social support. There is a need for evidence-based guidelines and recommendations for resistance exercise for older adults to safely and gradually introduce this type of training into their routines. However, there is no “average” older adult, and so it is impossible to provide a single recommendation that is fully representative, especially across age groups. All individuals respond differently to resistance training, and progression should be closely monitored to be able to individually adjust the training program; consequently, different methods available for assessing muscle strength and physical function that serve to analyze the effectiveness of interventions are discussed in this chapter. New strategies used in combination with resistance training in older adults are also addressed, in order to provide novel insights regarding the resistance strength training in this population group.