PHT Faculty Publications

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    Hip and Trunk Variables in University Students with and without Recurrent Low Back Pain
    (North American Sports Medicine Institute, 2024-02) Lehecka, B.J.; Burleson, Jordin; Diederich, Paige; Salem, Morgan; Schoonover, Rachel; Tejano, Jason
    Background Low back pain (LBP) is a leading cause of disability. Recurrent low back pain (rLBP) is defined as two or more episodes of LBP in a 12-month period, each lasting more than 24 hours and separated by at least one pain-free month. Many studies have shown that hip and trunk variables have an influence on LBP. However, most of these are studies of participants with acute or chronic LBP rather than rLBP. Purpose To examine the difference between hip and trunk variables of university students with and without rLBP. Study Design Cross-Sectional Methods Participants with and without rLBP between 18 and 35 years of age not currently undergoing clinical orthopedic care were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Bilateral hip range of motion (ROM) and trunk ROM were measured with a goniometer or measuring tape (hip motions in all planes along with trunk flexion, extension, and lateral flexion). Strength of the hip extensors, abductors, and external rotators was measured using a handheld dynamometer, and a single-leg bridge endurance test was performed to assess differences and correlations between outcomes. Results Twenty-six subjects aged 18 to 35 years with rLBP (n=10) and without rLBP (n=16) participated. Statistically significant differences between the two groups were found for right and left hip flexion (p = 0.029 and 0.039, respectively), right hip adduction (p = 0.043), and right hip extension (p = 0.021). No significant differences were found between groups for strength, endurance, or other ROM measures. Conclusion The findings of this study show statistically significant although clinically non-meaningful differences in hip flexion, extension, and adduction ROM in the rLBP group compared to the control group. This lack of clinically meaningful difference may be relevant to testing procedures and treatment of patients or athletes with rLBP. This study also suggests that hip strength and endurance may not play a major role in the development or treatment of rLBP. Level of Evidence: 3.
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    Dental hygiene clinical faculty attitudes and likelihood of working during the COVID-19 pandemic
    (John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2023-09) Delacruz, Natalie M.; Anderson, Kelly L.; Smith, Barbara S.
    Objective: To identify circumstances that influenced dental hygiene clinical faculty's likelihood of working during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to explore attitudes (responsibilities, personal issues, ethics, and policy statements) about working. Methods: This cross-sectional study used a purposive sample of dental hygienists (n = 1710) employed in academic clinical settings that held full-time, part-time, or adjunct appointments. The Health Care Workers' Attitudes to Working During a Pandemic survey was utilized. Likelihood scores were calculated based on respondents more or less likely to work under differing circumstances. Frequencies of agreement for attitudes were developed. Correlations were explored between likelihood scores and demographic data. Answers to the open-ended questions were categorized and described. Results: The response rate was 13.5% (225/1710). Only one-third of respondents had a likelihood score of 100%. Factors with the greatest impact on likelihood to work were personal protective equipment. Almost all respondents' attitudes of working indicated that their employer is responsible for providing PPE. Over 90% felt their main responsibility was to themselves/family. Correlation analyses resulted in no significant associations between likelihood scores and age, etc. Faculty are considering leaving their jobs because of pay cuts and/or not feeling safe. Conclusion: Likelihood of working for dental hygiene faculty represents several personal and ethical decisions. Most respondents want employers to be responsible for their on-the-job safety. In addition, personal and work-related issues were causes of unease. The pandemic has had far-reaching implications on day-to-day work of dental hygiene clinical faculty as well as on the long-term trajectories and views on employment in higher education.
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    Child Interest Activity Plan (CIAP): An Implementation Driver to Bridge the Research to Practice Gap in Early Childhood Intervention
    (SAGE Publications Inc, 2022-05-14) Davis, Frances A.; Sexton, Sarah; Everhart, Kris; Shelden, M’Lisa
    [No abstract available]
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    Association of muscular strength with total and central adiposity in adolescents with intellectual disability
    (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2022-09-20) Bertapelli, Fabio; Pitetti, Kenneth; Guerra-Junior, G.
    Background It has been established that for youth without disabilities, muscular strength (MS) is negatively associated with total and central adiposity. However, this relationship has not been clearly established for youth with intellectual disability (ID). The purpose of this study was to examine the association of MS with total and central adiposity in adolescents with ID. Method Participants were 59 adolescents (40 males and 19 females: age 16.29 ± 1.66 years) with ID. Total and central adiposity were evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, waist circumference (WC), and conicity index (C-index). MS was evaluated with the score on the Bruininks?Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (range, 0 to 42, with higher scores indicating better performance). Sex-specific maturity offset equations were used to evaluate somatic maturity. Spearman's correlation coefficients and sequential multiple regression were used to examine associations between MS and adiposity. Results Muscular strength score was negatively associated with BMI (sr = ?0.32; P < 0.05), percent body fat (%BF; total, trunk, android and gynoid regions) (sr = ?0.51 to ?0.58; P < 0.01), and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (sr = ?0.29; P < 0.05). After control for somatic maturity and sex, regression analysis indicated that MS score explained 10%?17% of the variance in BMI, BMI z-score, %BF (total, trunk, android and gynoid regions), WC, C-index and android-to-gynoid fat ratio. Conclusions These findings suggest that MS is associated with DXA- and anthropometric-determined total and central adiposity among adolescents with ID.
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    The reliability and validity of Gluteal Endurance Measures (GEMs)
    (NASMI, 2021-12-01) Lehecka, B.J.; Smith, Barbara S.; Rundell, Todd; Cappaert, Thomas A.; Hakansson, Nils A.
    Background The gluteals have unique morphology related to muscle endurance, including moderate fiber sizes and a majority of Type I endurance fibers. Evidence suggests gluteal endurance is related to low back pain, running kinematics, balance, posture, and more. However, reliable and valid measures specific to gluteal endurance are lacking in the literature. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of two gluteal endurance measures (GEMs) for clinical use. It also aimed to examine validity for the two measures by using electromyography (EMG), recording reasons for task failure, and analyzing differences between demographic groups. Study Design Cross-Sectional Methods Sixty-eight males and females with and without recurrent low back pain aged 18-35 years were recruited from a university population. Electromyography electrodes were placed on subjects’ gluteus maximus and gluteus medius, and each subject performed three trials of GEM-A (abduction endurance) and GEM-B (bridging endurance). Hold times, EMG median frequency (MF) data, and subjective reasons for task failure were analyzed. Results Both GEMs demonstrated high intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.87-0.94) and inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.99). Mean hold times were 104.83 ± 34.11 seconds for GEM-A (abduction endurance) and 81.03 ± 24.79 seconds for GEM-B (bridging endurance). No statistically significant difference was found between subjects with and without recurrent LBP. Median frequency data validated the onset of gluteal fatigue during both measures. Posterolateral hip (gluteal) fatigue was reported as the primary reason for task failure in 93% and 86% of subjects for GEM-A and GEM-B, respectively. Conclusion This seminal study of GEM-A (abduction endurance) and GEM-B (bridging endurance) found both measures to be reliable and valid measures of gluteal endurance. Further examination of the GEMs in samples with different types of LBP or hip pain is recommended. Level of Evidence 3