2013 WSU Annual CGRS Abstracts

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    Combat identification training using an augmented reality learning system
    (Wichita State University, 2013-02-14) Smith, Dustin C.; Chinn, Melissa E.; Keebler, Joseph R.
    Combat identification (CID) is a high priority task throughout modern warfare. However, due to the quantity of fratricide accidents, it is reasonable to question the reliability of current CID training methods. With perceptual limitations (i.e. the keyhole effect), and the increase in use of unmanned vehicles (UVs) for missions, a question arises: How do we best train operators to perform well when presented with a combat identification task? More specifically: (a) Is training using canonical (front and side) views sufficient? (b) Due to UAV perspective surveillance, are non-canonical/birds eye views necessary for optimal combat identification performance? (c) Would training with either perspective yield sufficient performance? (d) Would training soldiers on both perspectives return superior combat identification performance? This research will examine training with an augmented reality learning system (BuildAR Software) to identify combat vehicles (i.e., Main Battle Tanks, and Personal Carriers). Therefore, subjects will be trained to identify tanks and personal carriers using either canonical or birds eye non-canonical perspectives. Further, training effectiveness will be measured using a computer-based assessment at the end of the study.
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    Statistical analysis to establish the relationship between radiation consumption and energy use for medical x-rays
    (Wichita State University, 2013-02-14) Valenzuela, Fernando; Twomey, Janet M.
    Current methods for estimating the amount of radiation used to produce an X-ray image are poor. Knowing this amount is an essential step in the development of a complete life-cycle analysis (LCA) of medical imaging procedures. The work presented is the outcome of research that employs statistical and probabilistic methods to process an image from an actual X-ray to determine a more accurate estimate of radiation used to create that image. The X-ray source, the interaction of the X-ray photons from source to target, and the interaction between photons and soft and hard tissue were simulated to obtain a result. The level of radiation absorbed by the patient is described using a correlation function between a non-filtered X-ray image and a filtered X-ray image.
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    Distracted while driving: a comparison of the effects of texting and talking on a cell phone
    (Wichita State University, 2013-02-14) Libby, David; Chaparro, Alex
    In the United States, 39 states have passed legislation banning texting while driving. By comparison, no state bans hands-free cellular phone use by adults while driving. The concern regarding texting reflects an underlying assumption that it poses a greater risk than talking on a cellular phone. However, there have been few published studies directly comparing these two tasks and their effects on driving performance. We conducted two experiments comparing the effects of talking on a cell phone and texting on driving performance. Experiment 1 was to compare the effects of texting and talking on a cellular phone on simulated driving performance. The results show that texting has a pervasive negative effect on mean speed, reaction time and eye movements relative to talking on a phone. The difference in performance might be due to the fact that texting often takes longer to perform than replying verbally. Experiment 2 investigated the effects of texting and talking on a cellular phone on simulated driving performance while equating task duration. After equating the time spent on each task, texting still had a greater impact on driving performance. Drivers in the texting condition had significantly slower reaction times, had more eye movements, drove more slowly and failed to detect as many peripheral letter targets compared to during the calling condition. The visuo-motor demands associated with text entry including the need to look away from the roadway to enter and confirm the text reply may account for the deleterious effects of texting on driving performance.
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    Splitting water molecules via conductive nanoparticles for hydrogen production
    (Wichita State University, 2013-02-14) Nageshkar, Vishal Vinayak; Jurak, Emil; Srikanth, Madhulika; Asmatulu, Ramazan
    One of the main topics of discussion at every multi-national forum is about the fossil fuel depletion and carbon footprints. It is believed that the world will run out of cheap oil in 30 years, causing energy costs to rise, and probably hitting the economies of many nations. Time is now to look for alternative sources of energy, so that a gentle transition from fossil fuels to renewable sources can take place. While several research programs are being conducted mostly on the sun and wind energies, there is one more source that covers 71% of the Earth surface, which is water and unique to the Earth. Splitting water using electrolysis orms oxygen and hydrogen molecules. Hydrogen has several uses in energy generations, including fuel cells, hydrogen-powered engines, heating, and many others. In this experiment, conductive nanoparticles, such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, C60, and indium tin oxide, were added into pure water with 10% of sulfuric acid solution, dispersed very well, and then electric current is passed through the dispersion at different DC voltages. During the tests, hydrogen gas was formed at the cathode, the negative side of the cell. The industrial hydrogen production using acid and pressure is very costly, and cannot compete with the fossil fuels. However, adding the nanoparticles increased the yield of hydrogen at lower voltages up to 10 fold. If the overall process is successful at a larger scale, the hydrogen production will be considerably low for the future energy demand of the world.
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    Are e-textbooks the educational tools of the future?
    (Wichita State University, 2013-02-14) Jardina, Jo Rain; Chaparro, Barbara S.
    Many schools and universities are starting to offer e-Textbooks in place of traditional paper textbooks. E-Textbooks are offered via a variety of reader applications, each having its own user interface for page navigating, search, annotation, and highlighting of text. This study investigated the efficacy of two e-Textbook reader applications, Kindle and Inkling, for an Introductory Psychology text. 40 participants completed tasks during a simulated study session for an openbook quiz using one of the applications. The ability to use the e-Textbook to make notes, bookmarks, highlights, and to navigate throughout a chapter were examined along with user satisfaction, perceived workload, engagement, and comprehension. Results showed that use of both applications resulted in similar levels of comprehension of the material as well as satisfaction, perceived workload, and engagement. Participants were less successful and reported the Kindle to be more difficult to find material using the Table of Contents and to find previously highlighted text than Inkling. Turning pages, however, was reported to be more difficult with Inkling than Kindle. Participants were overall positive about the use of the e-Textbook as a study tool stating that information was easier and faster to find than when using a paper textbook. They also preferred its light weight and portability to a traditional book. Details on these findings and user interface design recommendations for e-Textbook reader applications will be discussed.