2014 WSU Annual CGRS Abstracts

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    Numerical analysis of blood flow in the human aorta and bypass grafts
    (Wichita State University, 2014-02-13) Kok, Foo; Myose, Roy Y.; Hoffmann, Klaus A.
    Blood flow is complex due to the presence of curves, multiple branches, non-Newtonian flow, and pulsating effect. Even when an individual receives a bypass, which saves the patient, several years later a new bypass may be required due to graft failure. There are two different approaches for multiple bypass grafts, and clinical observations are inconclusive as to which approach is better. The aim of this study is to provide a systematic numerical approach considering different effects (curves, branches, non-Newtonian behavior, and pulsation) individually, and then integrating them together. The final goal is to better understand the geometrical effects of graft.
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    Active wing shaping control of a morphing aircraft
    (Wichita State University, 2014-02-13) Nobleheart, Wilfred; Chakravarthy, Animesh
    This project performs the control system design of a passenger aircraft with highly flexible wings, being conceptualized by NASA. The flexible wings enable change of the wing twist and bending in flight so as to achieve a local angle of attack distribution that is optimal for the specific flight condition. This leads to lower fuel consumption, which lowers emissions and benefits the environment. The aircraft has twenty-three control surfaces, distributed along the trailing and leading edges of each wing that are actively controlled. An output feedback controller is designed, and simulation results demonstrate the validity of this controller.
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    Evaluating nanosafety of nanomaterials by in-vitro cytotoxicity tests on fibroblast cells
    (Wichita State University, 2014-02-13) Srikanth, Madhulika; Asmatulu, Ramazan; Misak, Heath Edward
    In recent years, the use of nanomaterials has increased exponentially. In spite of the extensive research in this field, some areas are not completely understood, one of them being nanosafety. Because of their size and shapes, these nanomaterials have the ability to be easily absorbed in the biological and the ecological systems and interfere with them by hampering smooth functioning. In this study, MTT Assay was used to evaluate the nanosafety of carbon-based nanomaterials (Carbon Nanowire, Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes). All of the nanomaterials exhibited various levels of cytotoxicity. The level of cytotoxicity was dependent on the concentration, the size and shape of the nanomaterial. Smaller particle sizes exhibited higher cytotoxicities, which may be useful for the students, scientists, engineers and other participants who involve in these nanomaterials.
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    Effects of ethnicity on hearing screening failure rates in a newborn, well baby clinic
    (Wichita State University, 2014-02-13) McKeown, Ali N.; Fowler, Stephanie; Downs, David
    Researchers have reported a higher prevalence of hearing loss among Hispanic school-aged children than among children of other ethnicities. The purpose of this study is to measure if a higher risk of hearing loss is already present at birth among Hispanic well babies. Specifically, in this retrospective study, investigators will review hearing screening and demographic records of over 22,000 well babies born at a Wichita hospital from 2009-2012, and: 1) statistically compare the screening failure rates of Hispanic well babies versus well babies of other ethnicities; and 2) analyze if screening failure rates are associated with risk factors at birth.
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    An optimization approach and analyses to biomass production with an application in Kansas
    (Wichita State University, 2014-02-13) Cobuloglu, Halil I.; Buyuktahtakin, Esra
    Biofuels are critical in meeting the world's energy demand and have become a priority for the nation. In particular, biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstock has gained growing importance due to concern about the sustainable energy supply and security of food crops. Among other biomass sources, switchgrass is considered one of the best because of its economic and environmental benefits such as enriching degraded soils through carbon sequestration and prevention of soil erosion. In this study, we develop a mixed-integer optimization model in order to investigate the economic and environmental tradeoffs of switchgrass-based biomass production. This model maximizes the total profit of farmers while considering sustainable food supply and environmental concerns such as protection of bird populations. The model also provides land managers and policy makers with optimal decision strategies regarding allocation of cropland, grassland, and marginal land for biomass cultivation, seeding time, harvesting time, amount, and budget for operations at the farm level. We have applied the model to a case study in Hugoton, a city in southwest Kansas, by considering the production of switchgrass. Results show that given the current market price, switchgrass cultivation on grassland and cropland is highly profitable. The model results also suggest that if utilized by the government, conservation reserve program (CRP) incentives could make marginal land more favorable over cropland. This model can also be extended to biomass production from any other types of energy crops to identify the most efficient management and planning strategies for biomass production.