HPS Theses

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    The association of the ACTN3 R577X genotypes and athlete status - a meta-analysis
    (Wichita State University, 2019-05) Brannan, Deric; Amick, Ryan Zackary
    This study is a meta-analysis interested in research that investigated ACTN3 genotype frequencies present in different athlete types - endurance, middle distance, or power related. One of the many factors that determine athletic ability is genetics. One heavily studied gene in that regard is the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism. ACTN3 is a protein-encoding gene that is only expressed in type II muscle fibers. Three different hypotheses were formulated: 1) homozygous ACTN3 RR genotype will show a positive association with power related sports 2) no significant association of the homozygous minor allele XX will be shown with endurance athletes 3) no significant association will be shown between middle distance athletes and the heterozygous RX genotype. The analysis regarding hypothesis 1 revealed a statistically significant association between the RR genotype and power oriented athletes (OR = 1.4680, 95%CI = 1.0113; 2.1308, Z = 2.02, p = .04). Results for the analysis regarding hypothesis 2 showed no significant association between endurance athletes and the XX genotype (OR = .96, 95%CI = .72; 1.29, Z = .25, p = .80). Analysis for hypothesis 3 also demonstrated a non-significant association between RX genotypes and middle distance athletes (OR = 0.74, 95%CI = 0.38; 1.45, p = .38).
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    Accuracy of Moov Now™ exercise performance measures in recreational swimmers
    (Wichita State University, 2019-05) Cossell, Alexus J.; VanRavenhorst-Bell, Heidi A.
    Wearable fitness technology has become an increasingly popular tool to measure physical activity levels and performance measures across multiple sports. As more users rely on these devices to measure and report activity, the accuracy of these devices require in-depth study and validation. Traditional validation research of wearable fitness technology assesses devices on elite competitive populations, however as the general population's consumption of these devices expands, it is important to reveal the accuracy of wearable fitness technology on recreational users. The purpose of this study is to assess the accuracy of the Moov Now, a wearable fitness motion sensor, in the detection of total distance swam and number of stroke cycles in a 200m, free-style swim on recreational users. Forty healthy recreational swimmers successfully completed one 200m, free-style lap swim while wearing the Moov Now. Moov Now recorded total stroke count and total swim distance. Measures were compared to manual counts from recorded real-time video. A one-sample t-test (p = 0.05, 95% CI) revealed no significant difference (p = .442) between the known distance of 200m and total swim distance reported by the Moov Now. On average, however, the Moov Now underestimated swim distance by 1.56%. An Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) (95% CI) determined the Moov Now stroke count to be moderately accurate (.618) compared to real-time video manual count. Additionally, the Moov Now on average underestimated total stroke count by 4.03%. Findings from this study suggest that the Moov Now may be a valid and accurate device in measuring total freestyle swim distance but may not be as accurate in detecting freestyle stroke count during a 200m swim when worn a by recreational swimmer.
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    The effects of kinesiology tape on active knee flexion
    (Wichita State University, 2018-05) Montgomery, Alexis; Rogers, Michael E.
    INTRODUCTION: Kinesiology tape (KT) is used in therapeutic clinics, chiropractic clinics, and sports settings as a tool to prevent or treat injuries. Some of the reported benefits of KT include decreasing pain, decreasing edema, increasing muscle strength, and improving circulation throughout the body. The current study evaluated the effects of KT on active knee ROM. METHOD: Forty students (29 females, 11 males) between the ages of 19-26 participated in the study. Two strips of KT were applied to the medial and lateral side of the patella on the right knee under these conditions; no tape, 0% elongation, 25% elongation, and 50% elongation. ROM was measured using the Microfet-3. RESULTS: A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures found no significant differences in the effects of KT on active knee flexion. (Greenhouse-Geisser F (2.38, 92.8) =2.673, p=0.065). CONCLUSION: KT applied at 0%, 25%, and 50% elongation showed to have no significant effect on active knee ROM. These results suggest that KT does not restrict ROM when applied with tension over a joint. Future research needs to be done to determine the possible benefits of KT over longer periods of time.
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    The acute effects of intermittent creatine and carbohydrate supplementation on anaerobic performance in recreational athletes
    (Wichita State University, 2018-05) Bach, Joseph Lawrence; Rogers, Michael E.
    INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that supplementing creatine can increase the power, strength, and increase the amount of energy stored in the muscle as glycogen. Creatine supplementation is often ingested with carbohydrates, which may enhance the absorption of creatine into the muscle. There have been few studies, however, that have viewed the intermittent effects of creatine supplementation within hours of anaerobic athletic performance. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of intermittent creatine and carbohydrate supplementation within two hours of a Wingate test. METHODS: 11 participants performed a Wingate test after intermittent supplementation of either a 1) control (CON), 2) 50 grams of dextrose (CHO), or 3) 50 grams of dextrose and 5 grams of creatine monohydrate (CHOCR). Each participant consumed one of the three supplements, in specific order, across three separate occasions. Each supplement was administered after a bout of submaximal exercise and prior to the Wingate test. Data were collected for analysis of the averaged peak power output (PP), amount of power produced in seconds 1-5 and 5-10 (AUC5 and AUC10), and the averaged end power (EP) RESULTS: There were significant differences (p<0.05) in PP between CHO and CHOCR, AUC5 between CON and CHOCR, AUC5 between CHO and CHOCR, and AUC10 between CON and CHOCR, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of the study indicated that supplementation of creatine within two hours of anaerobic athletic performance may enhance athletic performance.
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    Relationship between total protein intake and essential amino acid threshold frequency on measures of muscle mass in adults between 50-80 years of age
    (Wichita State University, 2014-05) Patterson, Kaitlyn M.; Young, Kaelin C.
    Sarcopenia, loss of skeletal muscle in older adults, can lead to serious health consequences. Several non-pharmacological strategies have been suggested to prevent sarcopenia, one of which is increased protein consumption above the current RDA and/or reaching a certain threshold (approximately equal to 10 grams of essential amino acids) of quality protein at each meal. This study examined the association between the amount of skeletal muscle mass in older active adults with regard to their total protein intake and essential amino acid threshold frequency (EAATF) (number of meals per day that provided at least 10 grams of essential amino acids). Fifty-one healthy male (n=22) and female (n=29) active older adults participated in this cross-sectional study. Average daily total protein (grams) and EAATF were determined from a seven-day dietary record. Dietary records and subsequent amino acid profiling were analyzed using a computer software program. Daily food records were averaged across seven-days to give an average representation of total protein intake and EAATF. Total and appendicular lean mass (aLM) were determined by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Relative lean mass (RLM, total lean mass/height2) and appendicular lean mass index (aLM/height2) were also calculated. Data were analyzed using Pearson Partial Correlation Coefficients controlling for body weight and physical activity level with an alpha level of 0.05. EAATF (1.1 + 0.6 times/day) was positively associated with RLM (r = 0.621, p < 0.001) as well as aLM index (r = 0.583, p < 0.001). Total protein intake (91.1 + 29.1) was also positively associated with RLM (r = 0.582, p < 0.001) and aLM index (r = 0.598, p < 0.001). Our data suggest that, not only total protein intake, but also consuming a certain threshold of quality protein with each meal throughout a day may be important for maintaining muscle mass during aging.