MLS Research Publications

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    Food pattern modeling as an alternative assessment method to multiday dietary recalls for iron-related nutrients: a proof-of-concept study
    (MDPI AG, 2020-06-28) Delimont, Nicole; Nickel, Sarah M.
    There are barriers to in-depth memory-based dietary assessment techniques in community-based research. Food pattern modeling may be an alternative method to traditional assessment techniques. The objective of this study was to pilot a comparison of food pattern modeling to 24 h diet recalls for predicting hematological outcomes of iron status. Data from 3–24 h dietary recalls in 27 women were analyzed by two methods: mean dietary intake estimates or food pattern modeling. Food pattern modeling was used to determine the total inventory of foods consumed with iron, phytate, or ascorbic acid or iron–phytate ratios. Each variable was analyzed for its relationship to hemoglobin, ferritin, and acute iron absorption from a meal challenge study by creating receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. There were no differences in ROC curves or diagnostic accuracies between food pattern modeling or mean dietary intake estimates for iron, vitamin C, phytate, or phytate–iron ratios for estimating hemoglobin or ferritin values (p > 0.05). Food pattern modeling was inferior to mean dietary estimates for acute iron absorption, suggesting that more detailed methods may be necessary for studies with sensitive or acute dietary measurement outcomes. Food pattern modeling for total iron, vitamin C, phytate, and phytate–iron ratios may be comparable to detailed memory-based recalls for larger studies assessing the impact of foods on iron status.
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    Aerobic exercise sustains performance of instrumental activities of daily living in early-stage Alzheimer's Disease
    (Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc., 2019-07) Vidoni, Eric D.; Perales, Jaime; Alshehri, Mohammed M.; Giles, Abdul-Mannaan; Siengsukon, Catherine F.; Burns, Jeffrey M.
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) experience progressive loss of independence-performing activities of daily living. Identifying interventions to support independence and reduce the economic and psychosocial burden of caregiving for individuals with AD is imperative. The purpose of this analysis was to examine functional disability and caregiver time in individuals with early-stage AD. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of 26 weeks of aerobic exercise (AEx) versus stretching and toning (ST). We measured functional dependence using the Disability Assessment for Dementia, informal caregiver time required using the Resources Utilization in Dementia Lite, and cognition using a standard cognitive battery. RESULTS: We saw a stable function in the AEx group compared with a significant decline in the ST group (4%; F = 4.2, P = .04). This was especially evident in more complex, instrumental activities of daily living, with individuals in the AEx group increasing 1% compared with an 8% loss in the ST group over 26 weeks (F = 8.3, P = .006). Change in memory was a significant predictor of declining instrumental activities of daily living performance (r = 0.28, 95% confidence interval = 0.08 ∞, P = .01). Informal caregiver time was not different between the AEx and ST groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis extends recent work by revealing specific benefits for instrumental activities of daily living for individuals in the early stages of AD and supports the value of exercise for individuals with cognitive impairment.
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    The relation between newborn hemoglobin F fractions and risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome
    (College of American Pathologists, 2001-02) Cochran-Black, Diana L.; Cowan, Linda D.; Neas, Barbara R.
    The aims of this study were to determine and compare fetal hemoglobin (HbF) fractions at birth in newborns exposed and not exposed to selected factors that have been reported to increase the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Previous studies have implicated HbF in the etiology of SIDS by finding higher fractions in infants dying from SIDS compared to age-matched control infants.
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    Bioterrorism: What? Why? and Who?
    (American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science, 2002) Campbell, JoLynne
    The former Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services, Donna Shalala, indicated in an address in 1999 that complacency needs to be replaced with a sense of urgency in order for us to deal successfully with the threats of bioterrorism. The attack on September 11, 2001 and the anthrax threats have made our vulnerability clear. We are now living in a new and frightening world. Our complacency is gone. The victims and the survivors shall remain forever in our minds. Dr. Jeffery Koplan, Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in his broadcast, Building Infrastruture to Protect the Public Health said we must look at preparedness in a new way. We need to: build a solid public health infrastructure with grant monies; rapidly address the problem of inadequately trained staff; and address the capacity of a laboratory to produce timely and accurate results for the diagnosis of agents in the investigation of outbreaks. We must take action to prepare the healthcare system to rapidly meet any challenge, overt or covert, that may emerge.
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    Apparent anti-D after infusion of D negative donor blood
    (American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science, 2000) Hogan, L.S.