Multivariate Experimental Clinical Research, v.5 no.2

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    Book review: Experimental design in psychiatry: Research methods for clinical practice by Walter W. Surwillo, 1980
    (Wichita State University, Department of Psychology, 1981) Snyder, James J.
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    Bridges the gap between correlation coefficient and client general expectancy tables
    (Wichita State University, Department of Psychology, 1981) Schyerger, J. M.; Emerson, P.
    Readers are reminded of a "universal expectancy table" developed by Schrader from properties of the bivariate normal distribution. The authors point out some practical utilities of this table in training clinical practitioners - specifically, in developing probability statements about criteria given degree of relationship and place on predictor. Also presented is a modification of Schrader's table based on five levels of z rather than on three levels of percentile rank.
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    Sex-role and need configuration
    (Wichita State University, Department of Psychology, 1981) Batlis, N.; Small, A.; Erdwins, C.; Gross, R.
    This study examined configurations of needs for various sex-rile typologies. 134 undergraduates completed the BSRI and the Adjective Check List. Based upon median splits of the Masculine and Feminine scales, subjects were assigned to one of four sex-role categories: Androgynous, Masculine, Feminine, and Undifferentiated. Within each sex-role category, the t-scores for the 15 need scales were factor analyzed using a varimax rotation. In each case, a four-factor solution appeared most meaningful. Additionally, coefficients of congruence were calculated between factors for each sex-role pair, and a procedure devised to test the statistical significance of factor structure similarity between groups. As hypothesized, the Androgynous and Undifferentiated individuals were most dissimilar whereas the Feminine and Undifferentiated were most similar. The results confirm the findings of previous studies that have examined personality attributes in isolation. Discussion of factor structures of the need scales is presented.
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    A discriminant function for diagnosing depressives with selected source trait factor measures from the O-A kit
    (Wichita State University, Department of Psychology, 1981) Patrick, S. V.; Cattell, Raymond B. (Raymond Bernard), 1905-1998; Price, P. L.; Campbell, J. F.
    Thirty-one depressives and 30 normals were administered the subtests of the O-A battery used for measuring the objective source traits of Independence (U.I. 19), Evasiveness (U.I. 20), Realism (U.I. 25), and Somindence (U.I. 30). The covariance matrices for the two respective groups were found to be significantly different, X = 22.048, p ? .015. The sample variances for the source traits were all greater in the depressives than in the normals, especially Evasiveness (U.I. 20), but none were significantly greater. A subsequent analysis of the correlation matrices, however, indicated that whereas all pairs of source traits were significantly correlated in the normals except Evasiveness (U.I. 20) and Realism (U.I. 25), only two pairs of source traits were significantly correlated in the depressives: Independence (U.I. 19) and Realism (U.I. 25) were positively correlated, and Realism (U.I. 25) and Somindence (U.I. 30) were negatively correlated. The data were then subjected to a discriminant analysis for the purpose of determining the direction and degree to which each of the four source traits contributes to the discrimination of depressives when the source traits are considered simultaneously. The obtained discriminant function was highly significant, X (4) = 26.296, p ? .001. Depressives were found to be lower in Independence (U.I. 19) and higher in Evasiveness (U.I. 20) and Somindence (U.I. 30). The contribution of Realism (U.I. 25) to the discriminant function was too small to be considered significant. Following the discriminant analysis, the overall ability of the four source traits to discriminant normals and depressives was assessed by the Mahalanobis (1936) generalized distance function to classify subjects as normal or depressed. The classification procedure, which did not assume equivalent covariance matrices for the two groups, correctly classified 78.68% of the subjects. The relatively high percentage of correct classifications attest to the diagnostic and theoretical relevance of objectively derived source traits, especially when one considers the three of the four measures chosen were more theoretically obscure and less related to the depression than other objective source traits which could have been selected for investigation. The discriminatory power of all the relevant objective source traits should be even higher.