Multivariate Experimental Clinical Research, v.6 no.2

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    Dimensionality and concurrent validity of the Handler DAP Anxiety Index
    (Wichita State University, Department of Psychology, 1982) Sims, Jeannie; Bolton, Brian, 1939-; Dana, Richard H. (Richard Henry), 1927-
    The Handler Anxiety Index was developed to provide a measure of anxiety from the Draw-A-Person (DAP) protocol. The present study examined the dimensionality and concurrent validity of the Handler Index against two criteria, clinical diagnosis and the 16 PF anxiety scales. The results were as follows: (a) The median reliability estimate for the 20 Handler items was 0.97, (b) The Handler items were found to be heterogeneous with respect to item-total structure and saturation with drawing quality, (c) Factor analysis of the Handler Index was produced six orthogonal dimensions: Poor Quality, Correction, Three-Dimensionality, Expansion-Constriction, Overinclusiveness, and Inadequate Control, and (d) There was no pattern of significant relationships in the correlations of the six Handler factors with the two independent anxiety criteria. In summary, the results of the investigation suggest that there are no subsets of drawing elements that are valid indicators of anxiety.
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    Modal profile analyses of the SCL-90-R for Seven Mental Disorders
    (Wichita State University, Department of Psychology, 1982) Steer, Robert A.
    The SCL-90-R scores of 700 patients representing the seven ICD-9 mental disorders of adjustment reaction, alcohol dependencem neurosis, nonopioid type dependence, opioid type dependence, personality, and schizophrenia were examined by Modal Profile Analysis to assess whether or not any of the SCL-90-R profiles were similar. The 50 men an 50 women diagnosed with each disorder were further randomly divided into 25 man and 25 woman test and calibration samples for estimating the realiability of the emergent profiles. Five profile-shape components were identified in the seven disorders and suggested paranoid, anxious-depressed, hostile, somatic, and phobic-depressed syndromes.
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    Deciding on the ratio of number of subjects to number of variables in factor analysis
    (Wichita State University, Department of Psychology, 1982) Baggaley, Andrew R.
    The appropriate rations among the number of subjects, variables, and retained factors in a factor analysis has been much disputed. A theoretical rationale is developed for deciding on the ration of subjects to variables. Some rules of thumb are suggested for this and related issues.
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    The clinical use of difference scores: Some psychometric problems
    (Wichita State University, Department of Psychology, 1982) Cattell, Raymond B. (Raymond Bernard), 1905-1998
    Some pure statisticians have raised such difficulties regarding difference scores that clinicians and others who are bound to use them have been doing so only with trepidation. This article examines the dependability of difference scores as a function of (1) the dependability of the single occasion scores, (2) the correlation between pre- and post-interval scores, (3) the pre-post difference of means and (4) the relative pre-post standard deviation--all in regard to the same variable measured twice on the same people. Uncorrelated pre- and post-scores, equal or unequal in variance, yield differences with no larger percent error than the single occasion scores. The difference score has highest dependability with a negative pre-post correlation, and is reduced finally to zero with a positive, except when before and after standard deviations are different. The suitability of procedures depends on the psychological model one is using--merely itemetric or heeding structures recognized in trait and state theory. In the latter one must distinguish between the "instant" pre-post dependability coefficient and the long term stability coefficient, in which the true score itself alters. A trait constancy coefficient of 0.5, not uncommon over, say, six months of therapy, results in a reduction of a difference score dependability coefficient of 0.9 to 0.82, which can readily be compensated by a Spearman-Brown calculated increase of test length. More important than what some statisticians have emphasized is the need for getting equal interval properties in the test, by pan-normalization or relational simplex principles.