ItemAnalysis of lithic material from the Boxed Springs site (41UR30)(Wichita State University, 2023-04-14) Kressly, Douglas J.; Dozier, Crystal A.While the Boxed Springs site is primarily known for the elaborate Early Caddo (800-1200 CE) ceramic assemblage from cemetery contexts, lithic material is also abundant at the site. This study describes the stone tool assemblage recovered from Wichita State University’s investigations in 2021 and 2022. Although the time frames allotted for excavations were limited at Boxed Springs, lithic material recovered at the site was abundant. This analysis was conducted in order to: Identify and document the raw material within the site, attempt a better understanding of the stages of production that may be present, and to identify and document any diagnostic artifacts recovered. The procurement of raw materials, especially when examined alongside stages of production present at Boxed Springs has the potential to provide information concerning possible cultural spheres and areas of interaction for the people that once lived there. Further, the presence of diagnostic lithic artifacts may assist in providing clues as to Caddo lifeways, both at Boxed Springs and within the larger Caddo cultural sphere. ItemGendered representation of popular archaeology pictorial analysis of Archaeology magazine (1948-2020)(Wichita State University, 2023-04-14) Lynch, Siofra T.; Dozier, Crystal A.Archaeology is a discipline that has long captured the imaginations of the public. Despite the reality that the academic field has been dominated by female graduates since the 1970s, persistence in the discipline has been only recently parsimonious, if not male dominated. The present study explores patterns in gender representation within popular conceptions of archaeological field and lab work. We recorded visual trends within Archaeology magazine, a publication of the American Institute of Archaeology and the field's most popular general public magazine, from 1948 to 2020. Through examination of the photographs featured within the articles, we find that men are over-represented in all aspects of pictorial representation. Although the rates of women photographed as archaeologists has increased through time, average representation of women more than 30% has only occurred after 2015. As the magazine has increased the number of photographs per article throughout the years, our data indicates that the total number of men will continue to outpace the representation of women. We discuss these findings in historical context of gender imbalances within the field, popular conceptions of archaeology, and intersections between gender and other social categories. ItemFauna and flora of Boxed Springs (41UR30)(Wichita State University, 2022-04-29) Rye, Elayne; Dozier, Crystal A.Boxed Springs (41UR30) located in East Texas is an Early Caddo (800-1200 C.E.) archaeological site split between multiple properties that has been sporadically excavated since the 1950s. The identification and classification of faunal and macrobotanical samples collected will provide information on the animals and plants represented at Boxed Springs. A comparison between the results, other Caddoan sites, and expected findings will expand on current knowledge of Caddoan lifeways. The conclusions will offer insight into subsistence strategies at Boxed Springs that future researchers can use to compare with other Caddoan sites. The findings from the limited samples collected are consistent with previous data of recovered remains from Boxed Springs. Individual faunal fragments were identified by class (aves, reptile, mammal, etc.) and where possible the family as well. Macrobotanical remains were identified as woody, nutshell, or other plant type. An analysis was conducted to determine the family or species of nutshell yet, a positive identification was not possible. Future studies are needed for more precise identification of the faunal and macrobotanical samples. ItemLithic and debitage analysis of Early Caddo site at Boxed Springs (41UR30) in East Texas(Wichita State University, 2022-04-29) Larzalere, Jordan; Dozier, Crystal A.The Boxed Springs site in East Texas contains a large number of lithics from the Early Caddo period (800-1200 CE) to the late Caddo period (1400-1700 CE). The origin of the raw materials and lithic debitage often remains unknown as well as the usage of the objects. The analysis of lithic materials will aid in the explanation and reconstruction of early Caddo inhabitants to the area, paying attention to lithic patterns, evolution, migration, and settlement patterns. By using the lithic materials recovered from the Boxed Springs site, currently located at the WSU campus, this study will look at the type of raw materials used, comparing and contrasting them, studying the debitage materials while attempting to decipher how these materials were used by the Caddoan. The analysis will be done using a large scale for weight, inventory reports, previously collected raw materials from the City Archaeology Office at WSU and site data information recovered from excavations. Understanding what type of raw material the objects are made of and where the material originates will give us a better idea of how certain raw materials traveled between regions. The present study will aid researchers in tracing lithic debitage usage at the Boxed Springs site across four separate states consisting of known Caddo sites including Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. ItemComparative investigation of building materials at Boxed Springs Site (41UR30)(Wichita State University, 2022-04-29) Tolley, Gracie; Dozier, Crystal A.Archaeological artifacts that are commonly connected to habitation have been unearthed at Boxed Springs (41UR30), in Upshur County, Texas, during two surveys in 2020 and 2022. By comparing the depth, weight, and quantity of building materials, more evidence for Boxed Springs' likely occupation during the early Caddo period (900-1200 CE) can be found. The magnetometry was completed at this site in 2020 that indicated potential structures at Boxed Springs. These building materials helped test this hypothesis. For this comparison, two materials from the survey were used: daubs and fire-cracked rocks. Daub is a hardened clay mixture utilized in building structures; these have never been found at the site. Fire-cracked rocks are signs of controlled fire and cooking technologies. Only Squares 1 and 2 had daub, all of which were above 60 CMBC; this correlates to the post holes at 80 CMBD and the possible mound near Square 3 as suggested by magnetometry. Between 40 and 80 CMBD, fire-cracked rocks were the most common. Results such as this can direct the location of future assessments at Boxed Springs.