ItemExploring allicin from garlic as a method of wound control in soft tissue infections(Wichita State University, 2016-02-02) Johnson, Lauren J.; Beckman, Fawn; McDonald, J. DavidThe antimicrobial properties of allicin, while long known, require further investigation in order to evaluate this garlic-derived chemical as an anti-infective agent against Staphylococcus aureus wound infection. S. aureus is well adapted to live on skin as either normal flora or as a pathogen. Indeed, it is carried as normal flora by approximately one-third of all people. Thus, there is an important ongoing clinical problem with wound infection by this pathogen along with the fact that antibiotics continue to lose their effectiveness against strains. This has motivated us to explore alternative methods to deal with this common clinical problem and allicin quickly emerged as an agent worthy of testing in a standardized wound infection model. Using a mouse model, we followed wound progression in the presence of different levels of allicin applied at the wound site, and compare that to uninfected and untreated controls. We followed the progression of this infection in a number of ways: visually (by periodic photography of the wound site), through the quantitative determination of inflammatory cytokine gene expression by the mouse host, through the quantitative determination of virulence factor gene expression by the pathogen, and histologic staining and microscopic analysis of wound tissue. These forms of analysis will serve as the basis for determining whether allicin is effective at controlling wound infection and, if so, to perhaps yield important clues about the mechanism by which it operates. These clues may be useful in designing more effective control on wound infection in the future. ItemCost-effective surveillance and control strategies against the emerald ash borer threat in North America(Wichita State University, 2016-02-02) Kibis, Eyyub Y.; Buyuktahtakin, EsraThe emerald ash borer (EAB), a pest of ash trees native to Asia, has been a threat to North America. More than 20 million ash trees have been killed since the beginning of the infestation, and thousands of them have been removed to slow down its impact. According to the USDA, EAB infestation represents a potential $60 billion loss to the U.S. economy. It is forecasted that the infestation has the potential to spread over all of North America by 2030, which can result in killing hundreds of millions of ash trees. Considering the fact that the Greater Kansas City area has more than 4.5 million ash trees and has been a confirmed EAB infestation area since 2012, further spread of the EAB may have a huge impact on the Kansas economy and environment. In this study, our objective is to maximize the net benefits of the ash trees on a given landscape by applying surveillance to the ash population, followed by treatment or removal of trees based on their infestation level. Specifically, we propose a new multistage stochastic programming model, which will allow us to consider all possible scenarios for surveillance, treatment, and removal decisions over a planning horizon to control the EAB invasion. Due to the model's complexity and state-of-the-art nature, we use a special-scenario reduction algorithm to reduce the size of the model. Results provide insights into surveillance and control policies, and provide an optimal strategy to minimize EAB infestation with a limited budget allocation. ItemA year of pediatric prevention(Wichita State University, 2016-02-02) Hildebrand, Bethany; Day, Jordan; West, Ronnie; Wallace, MichelleUnintentional injury remains the leading cause of death in children under 18 years of age in the United States. From 2003 to 2013, 93,941 unintentional deaths occurred in the pediatric population, not including the additional morbidity in survivors. This project aims to educate parents and providers about the most common unintentional pediatric injuries by composing a list of evidence-based strategies to reduce injury and mortality. After reviewing the National Vitals Statistic System from the CDC website, a list of common pediatric unintentional injuries was compiled. This list was narrowed to encompass 12 topics based on their burden of injury, cost to society, and feasibility of recommended actions. Each of these topics was studied further to produce evidence-based strategies for prevention. The clinical review article will be converted into a safety-themed calendar for parents and healthcare providers that raises awareness and provides information to prevent 12 common unintentional injuries in children. ItemPrevalence of urinary incontinence in high school and middle school-aged female athletes(Wichita State University, 2016-02-02) McAfee, Amy; Smith, Courtni; Kelsey, Ashley; Pihl, Maggie; Westbrooke, Elissa; Celso, JenniferThe purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) in middle school and high school female athletes in order to investigate the need for preventative education in the future. Additional topics of study were whether or not these athletes have ever received training in pelvic floor strengthening exercises and the impact of this issue on quality of life. Data was collected from 49 subjects via surveys including the ICIQ-FLUTS questionnaire and one created by investigators. Among 49 athletes, 27 young women (55.1%) reported urinary leakage. The mean age was 15.6 (± 1.3) years of the total participants and 15.6 (± 1.1) years for those that reported leakage. Of the 49 participants, Out of those reporting leakage (27), 17 (63.0 %) reported feeling embarrassed, 4 (14.8%) reported feeling afraid, and 5 (18.5%) reported feeling bad about themselves. Among the young athletes that reported UI, 55.6% reported no previous education on the performance of pelvic floor exercises (Kegels) in order to prevent the occurrence of UI. The results of this study indicate a prevalence of UI in middle school and high school female athletes, and that this has a negative effect on their quality of life causing them to feel embarrassed, afraid, and bad about themselves. Due to the young age of these athletes and the lack of education on pelvic floor exercises (i.e Kegels), a preventative education program should be developed in order to enhance the quality of life of this population. ItemAutism speaks: Giving a voice to the social constructs of adolescents with ASD(Wichita State University, 2016-02-02) Hess, Sean; Self, Trisha L.; DiLollo, Anthony; Strattman, Kathy H.; Coufal, Kathy L.; Medvene, Louis J.Many protocols used for assessing social skills of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are based on behavioral observations. It has been suggested, however, that social cognition encompasses processes underlying observable behaviors. Such processes include personal constructs and cognitive complexity, which are associated with successful interpersonal communication skills used in social interactions. Personal constructs can be assessed using repertory grids (Kelly, 1955), and cognitive complexity can be assessed using the Role Category Questionnaire (RCQ; Crockett, 1965). Personal constructs and cognitive complexities of high-functioning teenagers with ASD were explored using repertory grids and the Role Category Questionnaire. Five high-functioning adolescents diagnosed with ASD participated in the study. All participants completed the RCQ. Results appeared to be more reflective of interpersonal communication ability rather than overall social cognition. With visual structure and verbal scaffolding, all participants successfully engaged in the repertory grid process. It appears that high-functioning adolescents with ASD have well organized, complex construct systems related to social relationships. Data suggests they have a significant understanding of social roles and are interested in social interactions. Repertory grids and the RCQ offer a person-centered view of social cognitive processes, which may provide a starting point for intervention.