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    Jazz guitar technique handbook: Compendium of scales, arpeggios, & chord voicings
    (Wichita State University, 2021) Flynn, William
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    The effects of varying melodic intervals in melodic intonation therapy for persons with aphasia
    (Routledge, 2022-06-26) Darland, Kylie; O’Bryan, Erin; Richburg, Cynthia M.; Bernstorf, Elaine
    Background Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) is an evidence-based treatment for persons with non-fluent aphasia. The contribution of rhythm within MIT has been frequently studied, though little research has been completed to determine the role melodic intervals play in this therapy. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of melodic intervals on the efficacy of MIT by using two different melodic intervals to intone target phrases: the consonant minor third and the dissonant tritone. These researchers hypothesized that participants would have greater success in therapy when phrases were intoned on the minor third due to the interval’s familiarity and perceived pleasantness as opposed to the unfamiliar and perceptually unpleasant tritone. Methods & Procedures Using a single-subject, multiple-baseline design, two participants with expressive aphasia were exposed to phrases intoned on both intervals while participating in MIT across eight weeks. Spoken probe phrases were elicited and quantitatively scored on intelligibility prior to, during, and after treatment to measure progress made for phrases intoned on each interval. An effect size was calculated for each interval using a formula created for single-subject, multiple baseline aphasia research studies (Beeson & Robey, 2006). Outcome & Results The effect size of the tritone was greater than the effect size of the minor third for both participants: this was contrary to the researchers’ hypothesis. Due to COVID-19, treatment was completed via teletherapy, the first time this method has been used to conduct an MIT treatment study. It was determined that MIT provided in this format resulted in improvement in trained phrases. Conclusion This research suggests that contrary to the MIT protocol, therapy may be more efficacious if phrases are sung using dissonant or unfamiliar melodic intervals rather than pleasant, familiar intervals. However, generalization of this study is restricted due to several limitations. Further research should be completed to evaluate the effects of various intervals within MIT and the complex interaction between rhythm and pitch.
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    Cueing refrains in the medieval conductus
    (Taylor & Francis, 2018-10-05) Caldwell, Mary Channen
    As lyrical refrain forms flourished beginning in the twelfth century and increased attention was paid to the mise en page of song in manuscript sources, scribes faced the dilemma of how to cue frequent repetition of poetry and music. Owing to a lack of shared conventions among these scribes, the signalling of repetition varied greatly among sources, the resulting inconsistencies furnishing what Ardis Butterfield calls glimpses of scribal thinking'. Nowhere is this more evident than in approaches to notating the Latin refrain, a structural feature in a range of genres and an inexact yet related parallel to the French refrain. I argue in this article that the graphic treatment of refrains in Latin song exposes assumptions that both scribes and performers made about form, genre and the realization of song in performance. Attending to the visual cueing of refrains clarifies textual and musical ambiguities arising from the simultaneously oral, written and performative milieu within which Latin song was cultivated and disseminated.
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    Chapter 5 -- Redefining music literacy common core to common score
    (Routledge, 2017) Oare, Steve R.; Bernstorf, Elaine; Giray, Selim
    This book examines contemporary issues in music teaching and learning throughout the lifespan, illuminating an emerging nexus of trends shaping modern research in music education. In the past, most music learning opportunities and research were focused upon the pre-adult population. Yet, music education occurs throughout the lifespan, from birth until death, emerging not only through traditional formal ensembles and courses, but increasingly through informal settings as well. This book challenges previous assumptions in music education and offers theoretical perspectives that can guide contemporary research and practice.
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    In tune or out of tune: are different instruments and voice heard differently?
    (SAGE Publications, 2015-04) Geringer, John M.; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Sasanfar, Justine K.
    We studied music majors' perception of intonation in accompanied solo performances of trumpet, violin, and voice. We were interested in whether listeners would judge pitch deviations of equal magnitude in the three solo performances as equivalent in intonation. Participants were 150 graduate and undergraduate music majors drawn from two large music schools and included 50 students representing each of the following areas of applied music study: voice, wind instruments, and string instruments. Listeners heard solo trumpet, violin, and soprano performances of Ave Maria (Bach/Gounod) accompanied by piano. Pitch performances of the soloists were altered in four sections of the excerpt and deviated in either the sharp or flat direction within a section by 0, 10, 20, and 30 cents relative to the accompaniment. Listeners judged pitch deviations in the flat direction as more out of tune for the trumpet than equivalent alterations of violin and voice, especially for magnitudes of 20 and 30 cents. In sharp direction changes, violin and trumpet were heard similarly and as more out of tune than the vocal soloist. Additionally, differences in pitch judgments were found between listener groups representing different areas of applied study.