ItemSharing biometrics with private organizations vs. government agencies(Wichita State University, 2022-05) Balcarová, Linda; Proctor, PatrickThe widespread use of biometric technology has made biometrics a part of our day-to-day lives. For example, biometrics are employed to purchase goods, unlock smart devices, board planes, or gain access to establishments. This quantitative study investigates attitudes of individuals towards biometric information and its sharing. In addition, the study aims to determine whether these attitudes are influences by the type of institution, such as private organizations or government agencies with whom the information is shared. In this work, biometrics, their widespread use, privacy, and security concerns affiliated with their use are briefly discussed. An online survey consisting of 28 questions was utilized to gather data from 298 participants. The data were analyzed using t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical methods. The analysis shows that certain factors such as level of education, age, affiliation with a specific group (undergraduate students vs. other campus community members), and technical skills influence individuals’ attitudes towards sharing biometric information. The research concluded that surveyed individuals are more willing to share biometric information with private organizations than government agencies. In addition, undergraduate students are more inclined to share their biometric information than other campus community members, and the level of education individuals achieve influences their decision on this issue. ItemWarzones, peacekeeping and police: using modern day policing strategies to strengthen UNPOL and peacekeeping operations(Wichita State University, 2019-05) Swauncy, Melissa E.; Birzer, Michael L., 1960-The purpose of this collective qualitative case study was to compare the training protocols of UNPOL officers from different countries over the course of three different missions. Five United Nations Police Officers participated in this study, two served in Bosnia, two in Haiti, and one in Congo. Each participant was selected either through a social media search or a small snowball sample. Each participant underwent a semi structured interview in which they detailed their training experiences and spoke on their perception of the effectiveness of their training. Participants were also asked about their field experiences and their assigned mission area. The answers of the UNPOL officers were coded and analyzed for themes, and compared against official UN Training Documents, Member State Training Documents, and official data from the missions. The ultimate goal was to determine the effectiveness of UNPOL pre-deployment and initial post-deployment training protocols and assess, based on officers and current policing literature, areas where the process could be improved. Results indicated that the training officers received varied so greatly that there was virtually no way to ensure that all or even most officers received ethics or sexual exploitation and abuse training prior to deployment. Results also indicated that UNPOL was weak in the area of Internal Investigations, and that there appears to be an educational divide among officers. This research also indicated that differing cultural norms among contributing countries was likely not the culprit in SEA offenses ItemPatrol shift staffing levels and community crime rates: Analyzing the impact of reduced per-shift staffing levels on reported crime rates(Wichita State University, 2016-05) Hall, Bryan Lee; Beeson, Jodie G.The purpose of this case study was to test the hypothesis: Police staffing deployment levels inversely affect reported crime rates. There is a growing body of research that looks at the issue of police staffing levels and their relationship to reported crime. The findings are conflicting, with some showing a moderate negative correlation. These studies use panel data from several large agencies and tend to center on the relationship of crime rates to the total number of officers employed for a given period. This method could lead to errors due to the varying structures of law enforcement agencies across the nation, which utilizes non-sworn staff. A longitudinal study was designed and implemented to examine the effect of actual fielded staff on reported crime rates. This study examined 5 years of daily patrol staffing levels for a medium size agency in south central Kansas, and compared it to the annual reported crime during the same period. The results of various statistical models showed a significantly high negative correlation between the mean number of officers on daily patrol and the amount of crime reported. The correlation was further analyzed to determine if there was the presence, and if so the direction of predictive causality. A Granger Causality Test was applied to this data and in 3 of 4 lags an there was an indications a likelihood that low staffing deployment levels caused an increase in crime. The same test was performed reversing the hypothesis and each of the 4 lags indicated a strong likelihood that reported crime did not affect shift deployment levels. ItemA qualitative study of selected juvenile offenders living in Sedwick County Kansas(Wichita State University, 2013-12) Browne, George Ebo; Birzer, Michael L., 1960-This study details the life stories of three former juvenile delinquents currently living in Sedgwick County, Kansas. The participants who are now adults reported extensive criminality and involvement in the juvenile justice system as juveniles. The study utilizes a qualitative collective case study methodology. A corollary purpose of the study was to determine if findings could be couched in Robert Agnew's (1992) General Strain Theory. Data analysis subsequently revealed six common themes among participants that presented challenges for their desistance from criminality as juveniles. These themes are: (1) lack of parental control, (2) living in a high crime community, (3) experiencing school failure, (4) displaying early signs of delinquency through aggression, (5) substance abuse, (6) and having a desire to obtain money. Moreover, the results suggest that these themes taken in constellation with one another seemed to be salient in their criminality as juveniles. Finally, the results demonstrated several sources of strain in participants' lives at the time of their offending. Therefore, the results of this study in part can be explained by General Strain Theory. ItemDetention for probation violators: characteristics of youth locked up for violating probation(Wichita State University, 2012-05) Harms, Randi Jay; Craig-Moreland, Delores E.This study examined the population of juvenile offenders admitted to a juvenile detention facility in one county in Kansas for a probation violation between July 1, 2010 and December 31, 2010. This descriptive study was exploratory in nature and identified characteristics of this population including demographics, risk of reoffending, case information, and outcomes. A total of 147 admissions were included in this study, involving 109 different youth, some of whom violated standard probation, and some of whom violated intensive supervision probation. This study also looked at the role of zero-tolerance language in sentencing orders and its role in the use of detention as a sanction for probation violations. For the majority of probation violation related detention admissions, the most serious offense in the case was a misdemeanor (71% of admissions) and a minor crime (65% of admissions). Nearly 50% of the admissions in this study were related to a single probation violation, and only 17% were related to an arrest or new charge. Of the 122 admissions for technical probation violations, 49% were related to a violation of zero-tolerance language in a sentencing order. Most of the admissions in this study resulted in a stay in detention that was less than one week, with 45% of admissions resulting in less than three days in detention. The vast majority (71%) of admissions for zero tolerance violations resulted in less than three days in detention. The results of this study indicate that nonviolent youth who have not committed serious crimes are serving time in detention due to technical probation violations. Additionally, zero tolerance language, particularly zero tolerance regarding school attendance, is related to multiple short stays in detention.