EL Research Publications

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    Underpaid but Choosing to Stay: Compensation Inequity in Kentucky Public Preschool
    (University of Toronto Press, 2023-01) Sherif, Victoria; Chapman, Kathryn; Rous, Beth
    The success of preschool programs is largely dependent upon a high-quality teaching workforce. Preschool educators are critical in supporting a child's socio-emotional development, motivation, school readiness, achievement, and overall learning. While expected to be professionally prepared similarly to their colleagues from elementary and secondary education, public preschool teachers face substantial underpayment and a higher workload. This study, which was part of a larger study focused on the Kentucky early childhood workforce, presents findings on compensation inequity for teachers and teaching assistants working with children aged three to five years in public preschool programs. The average public preschool teacher reported having a college degree with 11 years of experience in their current position and 12 years of experience in public preschool. The average teaching assistant reported having some college credits or a Child Development Associate degree with six years of experience in their current position and nearly nine years of preschool-based experience. Teachers and teaching assistants reported low wages in comparison with similarly qualified teaching staff at kindergarten through high school levels, with some having to work secondary jobs. Despite the wage gap, teaching preschool was a career choice for most respondents. To keep high-quality teachers and teaching assistants in public preschool classrooms, it is necessary to pay them a higher wage and provide support for their ongoing professional development.
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    Remembering teachers in a segregated school: Narratives of womanist pedagogy
    (SAGE Publications, 2011-05) Patterson, Jean A.; Mickelson, Kathryn A.; Hester, Michael L.; Wyrick, Johnny J.
    The authors use womanist caring (Beauboeuf-Lafontant, 2002) as a framework for analyzing data from an oral history project of Douglass School, an all-Black school that existed in the small town of Parsons, Kansas, from 1908-1958. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 former students who attended the school during the 1920s through when it closed in 1958. The alumni's memories of their teachers were vivid, powerful, and resonated with the tenets of womanist caring. Although the school closed 50 years ago, we argue that Douglass teachers' pedagogy has relevance for improving the educational outcomes of African American students in contemporary U. S. schools.
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    Adolescence: a growth period conductive to alienation
    (Libra Publishers, 1987) Calabrese, Raymond L., 1942-
    This paper clarifies the relationship of alienation to the period of adolescence by developing a portrait of the alienated and the at-risk adolescent. Current research on adolescent alienation follows two converging themes, the socio-psychological, where deviant behavior is viewed as evidence of adolescent estrangement from self and society, and the sociological, where alienation is divided into a series of dimensions for empirical assessment. These two perspectives converge to describe the alienated adolescent. The alienated adolescent is disruptive, rebukes authority, drops out of school or becomes a passive participant, is prone to suicide, abuses drugs and alcohol, and rejects the norms established by family, school, and society in general. Adolescence is a high-risk period wherein the adolescent experiences multiple environments which exacerbates higher levels of alienation. These environments include disorganized or disruptive families, schools that encourage students to become passive participants in the learning process, and a high-pressured pace of life. To lessen the at-risk nature of adolescents toward alienation, society can take steps to humanize their environment. These steps include the intergenerational integration of adolescents, their assimilation into responsible societal activities, providing them with a sense of meaning, and enfranchisement into the decision-making process.
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    The effects of teaching experience on levels of alienation
    (Taylor & Francis, 1988-01-03) Calabrese, Raymond L., 1942-; Fisher, James E.
    This study was designed to measure the levels of alienation among American student and full-time teachers, based on the length of their experience with the public school organization. One hundred seventy eight subjects, including 113 full-time teachers and 65 student teachers, were administered the Dean Alienation Scale. Analysis of the data indicated that student teachers had significantly higher levels of alienation, isolation, normlessness, and powerlessness, than did full-time teachers. The less experience the teacher had, the higher were his or her levels of total alienation and powerlessness.