FYRE in STEM 2024

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    Site formation processes at Etzanoa
    (Wichita State University, 2024) Carey, Vanessa; Wallace, Arland; Hoppe, Samantha
    Etzanoa, also known as the Cowley County Country Club Site (14CO3), was occupied by the Ancestral Wichita people throughout the Great Bend aspect, also known as the Lower Walnut focus dating approximately 1425-1700 CE. Wichita State University has been excavating a portion of the site with a high density of domestic features, especially storage pits, since 2016. The four baulk walls, labeled N2E3, N3E3, N5E3, and N7E3, were excavated from the surface to approximately 120 centimeters below datum or CMBD (referring to the line drawn to be 0 centimeters from the lowest point of the surface). By observing and analyzing the profiles of each baulk wall, this project intends to identify areas of anthropogenic (human) activity and stratigraphic (environmental) variation. Utilizing geoarchaeological flotations of samples collected from these walls allowed analysts to recover micro-artifacts, such as lithic flakes or charcoal. Through the analysis of these recovered micro-botanical and material remnants, researchers are better able to understand the depositional history of the locale; for example, the highest density of all artifacts was discovered from 10-40 CMBD, showing a high likelihood of human presence in those layers.
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    Differences in simple reaction time between individuals with and without Parkinson's Disease
    (Wichita State University, 2024) Azmi, Rida; Westbrook, Grace; Edwards, Rachel; VanRavenhorst-Bell, Heidi A.
    An individual's neurocognition declines as a result of Parkinson's Disease (PD). Reaction time (RT) is a neurocognitive task shown to be negatively impacted within individuals with PD. Reflexion Edge (RE) is a tool for assessing RT performance, however, little is known about the effectiveness of this tool to assess RT in an individual with PD. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in RT measures between individuals with and without PD. Methods: 14 older adults, 57-81 years of age, participated. Participants were placed into two groups: PD (n=9, m=69.78 + sd=6.74), non-Parkinson's (nonPD) (n=5, m=73.40 + sd=6.95) based on self-reported clinical diagnosis. Intake Questionnaire recorded demographics, health history, technology usage, sleep history, and on/off medication status were collected prior to data collection. Participants performed a total of 8 Simple RT trials completed across week 1, week 2, and 30 days using RE. Results: A one-way between-subjects Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) found no significant difference in RT measures between the PD group (m=951.77 + sd=265.25) and the non-PD group (m=764.22 + sd=128.40), F (1,13)=2.158, p= .168, n2= .152. Discussion: In general, the findings support the use of RE to assess RT measures regardless of the presence of PD. Further research to increase the sample population size along with establishing a more comprehensive understanding of within subject measures is needed before a definitive conclusion can be made.
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    Combining neurofeedback protocols for a PTSD patient with higher anxiety
    (Wichita State University, 2024) Izard, Raziah; Gregory, J. Claire; Jones, Mark S.
    Individuals with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder are often resistant to traditional therapies due to neurobiological alterations caused by repeated traumatic experiences. This includes unregulated activity in the right temporal lobe which affects the amygdala: the control center for decision making and emotional regulation. This hyperactivity leaves a person unable to process information effectively and to adequately articulate their problems. Neurofeedback training is a form of treatment for PTSD in which individuals can regulate their excessive brain wave activity manually using a variety of different protocols. The purpose of this study was to observe the efficacy of using two protocols specific to PTSD treatment across two semesters in a patient with higher anxiety to determine if the combination of the two resulted in significant improvement at the end of their treatment. Fp2 protocol, which targets the frontal lobe, was used in the first semester, and Van Der Kolk's protocol, which focuses on the right temporal and parietal lobes, was used in the second semester. The data from this patient's sessions was collected from a clinical study conducted at the University of Texas at San Antonio. Analysis and charting of these session results demonstrated minimal improvement at the end of the patient's treatment. While more improvement is still desired, these results along with outside literature suggest that the coupling of these protocols is another possible treatment option for PTSD patients who exhibit higher anxiety. Future research should be considered in improving protocol combinations like this one, further highlighting the significance of personalized interventions in mitigating symptoms of PTSD.
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    Discovering "The Great Settlement": Preliminary geoarchaeological flotation investigation of Etzanoa
    (Wichita State University, 2024) Carey, Vanessa; Wallace, Arland; Dozier, Crystal A.
    Etzanoa, also known as the Cowley County Country Club Site (14CO3), was occupied by the Ancestral Wichita throughout the Great Bend aspect, also known as the Lower Walnut focus, dating approximately 1425-1700 CE. Wichita State University has been excavating a portion of the site with a high density of domestic features, especially storage pits, since 2016. By observing and analyzing the profiles of four baulk walls, this project intends to identify areas of anthropogenic activity and stratigraphic variation. The four baulk walls were excavated from the surface to approximately 120-centimeters below datum, a precedent line to establish consistent measurement. Utilizing bucket flotation allows for the separation of a light organic fraction and a heavy silt fraction before further analysis. By separating the samples, analysts are better suited to recover micro-artifacts such as bone, charcoal, lithic, and 100 poppy seeds as a control. Through the analysis of these recovered micro-botanical and material remnants, researchers are better enabled to understand the depositional history of the locale and estimate that the occupational layer of the soil is around 10-40 CMBD.
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    Design and build low-temperature probe-head for FMR spectroscopy of 2D materials
    (Wichita State University, 2024) Hubble, Zane; Karki, Prem Bahadur; Ambal, Kapildeb
    Low-temperature ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy measurement will be beneficial to understanding the spin dynamics of emerging 2D materials. The probe-head for low-temperature FMR is difficult because modulation coils, a microwave stripline with connection, and other electrical connections must fit within the sealed cryostat, typically a 30mm diameter sealed tube. We describe the design and manufacturing processes used to create an ergonomic sample probe head capable of operating in a closed-cycle. The probe head was constructed from garolite (G10/FR4) because it has a low thermal expansion coefficient and it is nonmagnetic. The microwave stripline holder was constructed to hold modulation coils, enabling a lock-in detection scheme to detect the weak signal. A heating wire and a type E thermocouple were placed around the microwave stripline holder for temperature control and measurement. A perforated G10 tube was used to allow for evenly distributed gas flow and for temperature stability. We demonstrated room-temperature FMR on 100nm CoFeB film using the newly designed sample holder as a proof of concept.