Item16th Annual Symposium on Graduate Research and Scholarly Projects(Wichita State University. Graduate School, 2020-05-01) Wilks, Kerry ItemUtilization of fall prevention video for older adults(Wichita State University, 2020-05-01) Walters, Kaylin; Johnson, Emily; Riley, Nick; Brantley, Ryan; Keuter, Kayla R.INTRODUCTION: Every 11 seconds an older adult is treated in the emergency room for a fall; every 19 minutes one dies from a fall (National Council on Aging, 2018). Falls are not a normal process of aging and can be prevented (National, 2008). It is important to implement fall prevention programs before a fall occurs and reduce risk factors that contribute to falls (Yanan, 2016). To reduce fall risk, older adults should incorporate physical activity into their daily life, have a home safety evaluation, review their medications with their primary care provider, and have routine visual examinations. Research on fall prevention is readily available, yet educational tools designed to distribute educational information to the elderly is lacking. PURPOSE: Create a video for hospitals to utilize for educating patients 55 years and older on fall prevention. METHODS: Databases used to confine the literature review were MEDLINE, Cochrane, CINAHL, Pubmed and Google Scholar. Evidence based guidelines from the American Geriatric Society, National Council on Aging, British Geriatric Society and the United States Preventive Services Task Force were utilized. Keywords used were: geriatrics, fall prevention, home modification, cost analysis, frail elderly, balance and gait impairment, pain, accidental falls, medications, and vision. Research is targeted to community dwelling adults 55 years and older. RESULTS: Implementing physical exercise programs to improve overall balance and strength reduces fall risk. Home modifications such as installing handrails and removing clutter from walkways eliminates potential fall hazards. Incorporating visual examinations in a comprehensive physical examination can help providers detect visual impairments and reduce risk of falls. Other interventions such as appropriate eyeglass prescription, cleaning lens and usage of appropriate lighting ensure optimal vision. Finally, regular reviews of medications may identify side effects that may exacerbate fall risk. CONCLUSION: Educating older adults on actions to reduce fall risk will aid them in leading a more independent and safe life. Balance and muscle strengthening programs provide physical foundation to reduce fall risk. Exercise also improves confidence to perform activities of daily living safely. Incorporating home safety measures improves safety in the living environment. Regular vision examinations promote optimal vision. Routine medication reviews, with elimination of medications which increase fall risk, provide a safer environment for older adults. The combination of physical activity, a home safety evaluation, routine vision examinations and frequent medication reviews can reduce fall risk in older adults. ItemObservational study data inform the development of clinic-specific recommendations for implementation of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT)(Wichita State University, 2020-05-01) Rakestraw, Dulcinea; Rahman, Fatima; Kila, Eyinade; Steward, Christine; Burdsal, Charles A.BACKGROUND: Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is a clinical practice to identify and prevent risky health behaviors related to substance misuse. In preparation for SBIRT implementation assistance at a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC), Sedgwick County Health Department (SCHD) performed observational studies to identify current SBIRT-related workflow and inform recommendations for SBIRT implementation. METHODS: SCHD researched SBIRT processes and requirements. SCHD created an observational study form to document screening, substance use interventions, and referral and follow-up interactions of medical assistants, nurses, and medical and behavioral health providers. Study patients were age 18 or older and signed a confidentiality waiver prior to observations. RESULTS: In April 2019, SCHD observed 24 patient visits. Using observation data, SCHD created four SBIRT-related workflow process maps. Process maps revealed differences in perceived versus actual SBIRT-related clinic workflow. SCHD used process maps from observations and Kansas SBIRT requirements to draft a list of 20 SBIRT implementation recommendations. Recommendations included administering universal pre-screening questions verbatim and adding SBIRT processes to staff manuals. Challenges to completing the workflow observational studies included creating a workable process to secure authorization to observe patients, ensuring patients understood the purpose of study, and easing staff concerns related to being observed. CONCLUSION: Observational studies provided critical, objective data about current workflow processes and helped develop clinic-specific practices for SBIRT sustainability. The diverse expertise among SCHD, KUSM-W, and the clinic was essential to the success of the project. ItemVariation in effect of insect herbivory on Platte thistle (Cirsium canescens) between biogeographic range center and edge(Wichita State University, 2020-05-01) Taylor, Mason; Russell, F. LelandINTRODUCTION: Insect herbivory can reduce plant fitness and population sizes, but the strength of these effects varies greatly in space. The position of a plant population within the plant species' biogeographic range is an unexplored hypothesis to explain spatial variation in herbivore effects on plants. The Abundant Center Hypothesis (ACH) states that conditions for a species will be poorer at the species' range edge than in the center and, hence, a species will be more abundant toward the range center, and scarcer toward the edge. These hypothesized changes in plant performance and abundance may have implications for the intensity of herbivore attack on plants and plants' abilities to recover from herbivory. Platte thistle (Cirsium canescens) is a monocarpic species whose range is centered in the Nebraska Sand Hills and reaches its western limit in south central Colorado. PURPOSE: This study addresses 1) How do Platte thistle rosette (juvenile thistle) survival, growth, transition to adulthood, and adult seed production differ between range edge and center? and 2) How do the effects of insect herbivory on adult seed production and seedling recruitment differ between range edge and center? METHODS: I address these questions using insect exclusion experiments on reproducing adult Platte thistles and demographic data collection on juvenile thistles at the southwestern range edge of Platte thistle in Colorado. I achieve the range edge -- range center comparison by evaluating overlap of 95% confidence intervals around range-edge and range-center parameter estimates. Range center parameter estimates are available in published literature. RESULTS: Preliminary analyses suggest a positive relationship between the size of juvenile Platte thistle and the likelihood of transition to a reproductive stage. At the southwestern range edge in Colorado, no significant effect of elevation on growth, survival, or transition to a reproductive stage occurred. CONCLUSION: Further data analyses are being performed to reveal any significant differences in effect of insect herbivory on Platte thistle seed production and seedling recruitment between range-edge and range-center. ItemInvestigation of the effect of fatigue on the change in postural control stategies using surface EMG and Biodex Balance System(Wichita State University, 2020-05-01) Turner, Chase; Olson, Kate; Mailloux, Alec; Nguyen, Dalan; Hanson, Jessica; Ashbrook, Christina; Hakansson, Nils A.; Smith, Barbara S.INTRODUCTION: Balance allows maintenance of normal body posture and counteraction of opposing forces with or without physical activity. During static standing, hip and ankle balance strategies are utilized. Small perturbations require ankle balance strategy, whereas larger perturbations consume greater muscle recruitment that require hip strategy, along with higher trunk musculature activation. Central or whole-body fatigue may also have a similar effect on these balance strategies. PURPOSE: In this study, we measured the effects of central fatigue on muscle activation and balance strategies as measured by surface electromyography (EMG) of ankle, hip, and trunk muscles, using the Biodex Balance System, before and after a treadmill protocol. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy, young individuals (14 men and 14 women) aged 18-45 years participated in the study. Evaluation of EMG activity occurred in 6 muscles of the ankle, hip, and trunk during a postural stability test on the Biodex Balance System before and after a running protocol. The running protocol resulted in central fatigue, measured by heart rate and the Rating of Perceived Exertion scale (RPE). RESULTS: EMG of muscle activation during pre- and post-fatigue states revealed significant decreases in medial gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior and significant increase in lumbar erector spinae. The average overall stability index gathered from Biodex data decreased by 28.91% from pre- to post-fatigue states. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the effect of central fatigue on the human body demonstrates a shift from ankle to hip balance strategy, as well as significantly increasing erector spinae activation. Understanding this change in muscle activation with fatigue may lead to further research and rehabilitation techniques to reduce the risk of falls and injury after fatiguing activities.