Multivariate Experimental Clinical Research, v.7 no.1

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    A cross-cultural study of primary personality factor structure in the preparation of the Hawaiian high school personality questionnaire
    (Wichita State University, Department of Psychology, 1984) Cattell, Raymond B. (Raymond Bernard), 1905-1998; Danko, George
    The items of the High School Personality Questionnaire were adapted into the Hawaiian idiom for use with native Hawaiians. On two groups (550 boys and girls ages 12-14 and 580 of ages 15-17), factor analyses were done using the 26 variables created by odd/even splitting of the 13 scales (the 14th, intelligence, being omitted). Component analyses to check on number of factors were also done on the 26 plus 58 items used as possible replacement material. The scree test on both indicated slightly more than the number of factors existing in the scales, as is usual. and 15 were taken out and rotated to simple structure. Two proved to be interpretable error factors, different in the junior and senior groups, but the remaining 13 had (with few exceptions) the expected markers, and did match across ages. Source traits 0--guilt proneness, Q4--ergic tension (and perhaps Q3--self-sentiment), however, were of small variance compared to the original U.S. Mainland version, which might be due either to poor "translation" or to their genuinely being of small variance in Hawaiians.
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    Personality characteristics of habitual DUI and reckless driving offenders: Types of motivational distortion
    (Wichita State University, Department of Psychology, 1984) Steer, Robert A.; Scoles, Pascal E.; Fine, Eric W.
    The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) was administered to 92 men arrested for habitually driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol and 56 men arrested for reckless driving. The reckless driving offenders described themselves as more intelligent, bold, rebellious, extroverted, independent, and less guilt-prone than the habitual DUI offenders. Both groups' high Motivational Distortion scores indicated, however, that they were consciously faking socially desirable traits. A modal profile analysis was conducted to determine whether or not both samples had attempted to project similar types of motivational distortion. Five between-shape components were identified: shrewd, warmhearted, conscientious, imaginative, and resourceful. The effectiveness of using the 16PF to evaluate the personality characteristics of men arrested for DUI and reckless driving was questioned. The prevalence of psychopathology in persons arrested for driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol has been estimated as high. The literature concerning individuals requiring the attention of the criminal justice system is also overwhelmingly supportive of the idea that the majority of offenders are emotionally disturbed and in many instances dependent on drugs or alcohol (Poley, Lea, & Vibe, 197). Such findings do not imply simple cause and effect phenomena, so far as the antisocial behavior is concerned, but do suggest that the association between antisocial behavior and emotional-addictive illnesses is important. Alcoholism, drug dependency, personality disorders, neuroses, and occasionally psychotic illnesses are frequently found in persons apprehended for criminal behavior. Any prison population has a high incidence of alcoholism and drug abuse; and more often than not, these phenomena are associated with varying degrees of psychological dysfunctioning. The purposes of the present study were to assess the personality characteristics of habitual DUI and reckless driving offenders, to compare these offenders' mean personality traits, and to determine whether or not these offenders shared common personality profiles. The habitual DUI offenders were defined as persons who had been previously arrested for DUI violations, whereas the reckless driving offenders had been arrested for violating Pennsylvania's reckless driving statutes.
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    Psychometric function of the "neutral" response option in clinical personality scales
    (Wichita State University, Department of Psychology, 1984) McFadden, Lisa S.; Krug, Samuel E.
    Two of the most widely-used diagnostic personality inventories, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire (CAQ), differ importantly in their scoring of the "neutral" or "uncertain" response option. The MMPI aggregates all such responses into a separate validity index while the CAQ incorporates them into substantive scale scores. An empirical analysis was made of the impact on reliability and validity when the neutral component is included in or excluded from substantive scale scores. Scores on the 12 pathological scales of the CAQ were partitioned into one part due to endorsement of the keyed (i.e., "true" or "false") alternative and a part due to endorsement of the neutral (i.e., "uncertain") response choice. With respect to discriminating between 150 psychiatrically diagnosed and 150 normal adults, regression analyses showed that addition of the neutral component to the keyed component significantly improved the validity of the scales 75% of the time, with the average gain of 7% in variance explained. Improvement was greeted for the most severe diagnostic category. Alpha coefficients computed for each scoring method further revealed that including the neutral in the total score resulted in an average improvement of 10% in scale reliability. Despite a tendency on the part of many to think of all structured personality inventories as homogeneous class of measurement techniques, the reality is that self-report instruments are published in a wide variety of formats. In some cases forced-choice designs simultaneously present two or more items to the examinee. More often, examinees are asked to respond separately to each item in the inventory.
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    A note on testing the sphericity hypothesis with Bartlett's test
    (Wichita State University, Department of Psychology, 1984) Reddon, John R.; Jackson, Douglas N. (Douglas Northrop), 1929-2004
    This study employs computer simulations of correlations matrices to evaluate sample size requirements with different numbers of variables for testing departures from sphericity, implying the presence of group factors. Inductive approximation of average off-diagonal correlations due to Lawley (1940) and to Baggaley (1982) were found to be biased for correlation matrices with homogeneous elements. This bias led to some error in estimation by Baggaley of the appropriate sample size for evaluating departures from sphericity. Lawley's approximation was clearly inferior to Baggaley's approximation.