ItemComparative analysis of commercial and military jet engines in the last 50 years(Wichita State University, 2021) Cupertino, Pedro; Raza, A.V.M.Books and documents explain the operation and characteristics of jet engines without showing how they have evolved over the past 50 years. For each decade, there are also differences between the jet engines produced considering the main aeronautical poles globally, such as the United States, Russia / China, and Europe. Information provided by the manufacturers of engines, books, maintenance, and certification documents, allowed data relating to general characteristics to be collected and cataloged for all jet engines so that a comparative analysis could be carried out. The information used was Year of Production / Certification, Statics Sea Level Thrust, Weight, Sea Fuel Consumption (SFC), Overall Pressure Ratio, and Mean Time Before Maintenance (MTBM). The information collected was displayed in graphs that allowed better analysis of the more than 1100 jet engines analyzed, showing the evolution of the jet engines by country each decade and within each use of the engine, commercial or military. Based on the data collected, it was possible to group the engines based on their characteristics, showing the most significant jet engines in the history of the aeronautical industry. This comparative analysis shows that although the Americans produced their first jet engine after the Europeans, American engines quickly showed improvements in the qualities analyzed, highlighting the United States as the central hub in the first decades of the Cold War. However, the conflict also brought about a rapid rise in the quality of Russian / Chinese engines that competed in quality for three decades with American engines. From the 1990s onwards, Europeans again appeared as the most significant competitors for Americans, which persists today. This study shows a more detailed analysis of jet engines over the past decades. It allows a greater understanding of how the aeronautics sector has developed in the area of jet engines and can help students and interested parties better prepare for the study on aeronautical propulsion when focused on the Jet Engines area. ItemThe implementation of an optimize 3D printing path(Wichita State University, 2021) Lammers, Michael; Smith, Nicholas3D printing is an Additive Manufacturing (AM) process that generates several different two-dimensional paths. These paths are than laid on top of each other one at a time to create a three-dimensional object. This process allows us to quickly and cheaply model objects with a standard shape. However, when it comes to objects that do not have a standard shape, this process has the tendency to make those objects significantly weaker. This is because the current 3D printing applications do not take into consideration the loading scenarios of said object. Loading scenarios is the direction of the workload being applied to an object. This makes it much harder to prototype a product that revolves around its loading scenario and real-life application. To solve this problem Christopher M. Rogers created an algorithm that generates paths that account for loading conditions of the object. Christopher's algorithm successfully generated a G-code for a non-standard shape on the modeling software. G-code is the type of that is used to 3D print objects. However, his G-code had several bugs that caused errors when you try to print it. The purpose of the paper is to describe the bugs, flaws with the algorithm and how to solve these problems. With the new and improved G-code the idea of creating components that can be used in production applications is within grasp. ItemAn initial study on the line orientation patterns of a 3D printed specimen and its resistance to stress placed onto a specimen(Wichita State University, 2021) Lopez-Correa, Ricardo; Smith, NicholasThe purpose of this project is to determine the best line orientation pattern and material for a printed three-dimensional specimen to reduce the stress being applied. Investigations have been carried out by graduate students and researchers in the engineering department who are analyzing newer line orientation patterns. The proposed problem statement for the investigation is that the 3D-printed specimen that is made from CF-PLA (Carbon Fiber - Plastic) material and has parallel line patterns aligned with the loading will be more resistant to any tensile stress placed onto the specimen which tests the tensile strength and tensile stiffness of the specimen than any specimens made from PLA material with these same line patterns. The methods conducted in this investigation are that of 3D printing specimens using a 3D printer with different G-codes or geometry codes, and tensile stress testing using stress equipment. Data was collected by a student with a similar project for line orientation patterns and recorded that a maximum force of around 470 lbf was achieved by a specimen before pulling apart. The conducted study concludes that the horizontal line orientation pattern with CF-PLA material is the most resistant to stress placed on a specimen. In a future study, we would investigate a new line orientation pattern developed by a graduate student. Another future direction would be of making the prints with a clamping area rather than by gluing clamps on the ends of the print to hold in place of the tensile stress machine. ItemReducing noise to improve robotic material recognition(Wichita State University, 2021) Peterson, Mary; Li, Hui; He, HongshengDenoising Autoencoders (DAEs) are a machine learning tool used to reconstruct noisy data in a way that reduces noise, allowing artificial intelligence systems to better recognize patterns in data or images. An autoencoder model consists of symmetrically arranged layers, which contain different numbers of "nodes" (processing units) and sequentially process the data. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of a DAE for a context-aware robotic hand that uses a near-infrared sensor to distinguish between five material types (wood, ceramic, cardboard, plastic, and stainless steel). The accuracy of the robot's material recognition is greatly affected by ambient light, distance between the sensor and the object, and the orientation of the sensor relative to the object. Current programming methods don't resolve this problem. In this research, near-infrared material scans will be used to demonstrate the need for a denoising autoencoder for the robot. Multiple autoencoder models, containing different numbers of nodes per layer, will be tested on near-infrared scan data to evaluate their accuracy, and thus improve the accuracy of the material recognition. ItemSynthesis of BaSiS3 Crystal(Wichita State University, 2021) Touffaha, Ibrahim; Cicirello, Gary; Wang, JianInorganic chemistry attempts to understand the bridge between inorganic crystal structure and function. To fully understand function, the structure of a system must be first investigated and understood. Previous studies have investigated a Ba, P, S, and a Pb, P, S system and reported a change in the crystal structure. The Ba, P, S system had a centrosymmetric structure, while the Pb, P, S had a noncentrosymmetric structure. The difference in structure is due to the lone pair of electrons on the Pb atom that pushes the P, and S into a noncentrosymmetric structure. Here we report the discovery of a new Ba, Si, S system, and investigate how the replacement of P with Si affects the structure. In the future we anticipate to synthesize a Pb, Si, S system and investigate the effects Pb has on the system.