PHT Graduate Student Conference Papers

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    Relationship between body mass index (BMI) and balance capacity in youth (8-21 yrs) with intellectual disability
    (Wichita State University, 2023-04-14) Peacock, Dakota; Morgan, Josh; Tangney, Justin; Meitler, Kaden; Pitetti, Kenneth H.
    Adequate skill levels of balance affect activities of daily living, participation in recreational activities, and general physical activity levels of children and adolescents. Most studies of typically developing children and adolescents have reported significant negative relationships between balance (BAL) and body mass index (BMI). That is, the greater the BMI (e.g. overweight, obesity), the lower the scores on tests measuring BAL. The latter relationship is especially of concerns for youth with intellectual disabilities (ID) in that in a systemic literature search estimated that 61% of children and 66% of adolescents were classified as overweight/obese, respectively. To date, only two studies have investigated the relationship between BAL and BMI in children and adolescents with ID and both reported that no negative relationships exist. However, both studies were performed in countries (Hong Kong, Sweden) where participants had significantly lower BMI (i.e., only 20% classified as overweight/obese) than youth with ID reported in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if a negative relationship exists between BAL and BMI in youths (8-21 yrs) with mild and moderate ID. Participants consisted of 502 youths; 252 from Brazil (159 males [BMI = 21.7±5.8] and 93 females [BMI=21.7±6.7]); and 250 from the United States (160 males [BMI=24.2±7.6] and 90 females [25.0±6.7]). Given that no significant differences existed between balance scores from the Brazil and US participants, we were able to combine the results of the two countries and expand the power of the analysis. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 ) was determined by height and weight measurements on the day of testing. Mean BMI and mean age place females in the overweight category and males near the overweight category. Seven (7) balance tests were used from the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2): standing feet apart on a line, eyes open/closed; walking forward on a 4 inch line, normal walking and heel-to-toe walking; standing on one leg on a line, eyes open/closed; and standing on one leg on a balance beam. Because the BOT-2 test scores were not normally distributed due to the BOT-2 celling effect (i.e., stopping at 10 secs and 6 steps), a Kendall's Tau correlation coefficient was used to determine if significant relationships existed. Significance was set at p > 0.5. Although very weak, positive relationships were seen for standing feet apart on a line, eyes open (r = 0.075, p = 0.007) and negative relationships were seen for standing on one leg on a line eyes open (r = -0.066, p = 0.013) and eyes closed (r = -0.055; p = 0.042) and standing on one leg on a balance beam (r = -0.098, p = 0.00004). The results of the present study both compliment and contradict previous studies between BMI and BAL in that r values demonstrate negligible correlation, yet four of the r values are statistically significant. However, with large data sets, as we have in this study, very small correlation coefficients can be "statistically significant." These results suggest that clinicians who use the BOT-2 balance tests to evaluate the balance capacity of youths with ID should be aware that, although some BAL tests demonstrate significant relationships to BMI, the strength of relationships are so negligible that they are not clinically relevant.
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    The effects of tactile and verbal cues on hip extension strength and broad jump distance
    (Wichita State University, 2023-04-14) Reeves, Matthew; Waterson, Ryan; Kropp, Wyatt; Koester, Bryson; Daniels, Terra; Lehecka, B.J.
    Purpose: Several studies have demonstrated the effects of verbal and tactile cues on upper extremity muscle strength, while relatively few examined lower extremity muscles, specifically the gluteals. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of verbal and tactile cues on gluteal strength and broad jump distance. Methods: 42 participants between the age of 18-35 were recruited (22 male, 20 female). Participants received a tactile cue or verbal cue during prone hip extension and standing broad jump in a randomized order. Gluteus maximus strength was measured using handheld dynamometry. Verbal cues included "push, push, push" prior to both tests. Tactile cues included manual contact to the gluteus maximus by the researcher prior to strength testing, and by the participant prior to broad jumps. Results: Verbal cues increased hip extension strength by 13.5%, and both verbal and tactile cues resulted in significant increases in broad jump distance (4% and 3% respectively), with no significant differences observed between male and female participants in either condition. All measures showed high reliability (0.97-0.99). Conclusion: Both females and males significantly benefited from the use of cueing during hip extension and standing broad jump. These results have implications for clinical testing and athletic performance when gluteus maximus strength and jump distance are concerned. The primary limitation of this study was potential fatigue. Further research into the effects of verbal and tactile cueing could include a broader population and other outcomes that target the gluteus maximus including actual sport performance.
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    The effects of vestibular training in a balance program in the general population versus a post-concussive population
    (Wichita State University, 2023-04-14) Kelleher, Joseph; Lapp, Cara; Richardson, Kali; Williams, Haley; Ashbrook, Christina
    INTRODUCTION: Concussions are prevalent injuries sustained by individuals in various populations. Each individual may experience an array of symptoms with concussions which may include but are not limited to, confusion, headache, dizziness or vertigo, and mood or cognitive disturbances. The short-term effects of concussions are clearly identified and well-studied, but the potential long-term effects of concussions, including balance deficits, have not been studied as extensively. PURPOSE: This case study will examine the impact of vestibular training with an additional balance training program for a concussive participant compared to a healthy population. METHODS: Participants will range from eighteen to forty years of age, which includes healthy and concussed individuals. The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), Y-Balance Test, and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) will be used for the pre-test and post-test examination of the participants' balance and dizziness. RESULTS: The initial results of the twenty-nine participants from the general population and the one concussed participant were analyzed using a mixed ANOVA set at a 95% confidence interval (p=0.05) to determine the significance from the pretest to the posttest. The data collection of the twenty-nine participants from the general population and the one concussed participant were analyzed separately and then compared. Our case study found no clinically detectable changes between the healthy participant's data and the data of the concussed participant. CONCLUSION: This case study aimed to examine the long-term effects of potential balance deficits following sustained concussion and determine the impact of vestibular exercises and balance exercises in a concussive population compared to the general population.
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    Balance differences between active middle-aged adults on the Berg Balance Scale and Dynamic Gait Index
    (Wichita State University, 2023-04-14) Hiller, Anna; Gauzy, Adam; Pham, Tom; Tien, Kenny; Tew, Elizabeth
    Introduction: Fall prevention is a major component of geriatric physical therapy intervention with $50 billion spent annually on medical care related to falls. Different forms of fall prevention exist but are often implemented after a fall has occurred. There is a lack of research that determines when balance diminishes in relation to age and when early intervention can be implemented to reduce future risks. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify balance differences between adults aged 40-60 on the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) and determine if there are differences related to age or workout frequency in performance on static and dynamic tests. Methods: Participants were recruited from Wichita and the surrounding communities as a sample of convenience. Participants were asked to engage in a onetime data collection session after completing an eligibility survey online. 26 participants completed the data collection session. Each participant completed the BBS and DGI in the same order with age, BBS score, DGI score, testing deductions, and weekly exercise frequency being recorded for data analysis. T-tests and correlational analysis were completed based on age and exercise frequency. Results: Participants who engaged in physical activity three times or more per week performed better on the two tests with a significant difference in means. Means on the BBS were 54.75±1.21 for the lower frequency exercise group and 55.85±.534 for the high frequency group DGI scores for the two groups were 21.83±1.11and 23.00±1.35 respectively. Two-sided p-scores for the BBS and DGI were .005 and .026 respectively. A negative correlation coefficient with age was found with both the BBS and DGI at -1.93 and -.483 respectively. The correlation between age and BBS was insignificant with a p of .345. The moderate negative correlation coefficient for the DGI was significant with a p of .012.Conclusion: The data suggests age has a significant effect on dynamic balance more so than static balance, and that participants who engaged in more frequent exercise have better dynamic balance ability with age progression. Static balance is not significantly impacted by age and appears more affected by exercise frequency. Data also suggested that dual-tasking may be a factor that affects balance ability in middle-aged adults. This could guide further research in early intervention programs that focus on the dual-tasking during balance activities to maximize efficacy in the target age group and fall-risk long-term.
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    The effects of increased inspiratory muscle strength through breathing resistant devices on chronic lower back pain in a population of 18 - 40 years of age
    (Wichita State University, 2023-04-14) Blanchat, Todd; Delatorre, Blanca; Lamb, Lisha; Ta, Jimmy; Smith, Barbara S.
    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of an individual experiencing low back pain (LBP) ranges from 70-85% during their lifetime. Low back pain impacts patients in terms of unpleasant sensory and emotional experiences, activity restrictions, social restrictions, negative career influences, and financial burdens. PURPOSE: The therapeutic intervention involved diaphragmatic exercises by use of blowing into a balloon while maintaining a certain position to optimize both posture and stabilization to decrease pain. METHODS: Blast emails containing a Qualtrics survey were employed. Participants were those who had LBP persisting for three months or longer, ages between 18 to 40, and ability to perform the exercises. All participants who qualified were sent a consent form, pre- and post-intervention measures of the Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire and Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form. Protocol and group assignments were determined using a random number generator. Three groups were utilized; two experimental groups involving a "Ball and Balloon Method" in supine or 90/90 hip and knee position, and a control group. RESULTS: Only six participants completed the study. We had expected to find improvement of LBP in the experimental group assigned to using breathing-resistant devices with the 90/90 hip and knee exercise position. Individual data will be analyzed instead. CONCLUSION: Subsequent analysis may show decreased disability and pain through the "Ball and Balloon Method." Further research to determine exercise interventions that are more favorable and viable for this population are warranted.
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