Brief aikido training versus karate and golf training and university students' scores on self-esteem, anxiety, and expression of anger
Foster, Y. A.
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Perceptual and motor skills. 1997 Apr; 84(2): 609-10.
The purpose of this research was to investigate if aikido training for 10 weeks for 69 beginning students is effective in improving selected aspects of personality. The hypothesis was that subjects' scores would significantly increase on self-esteem but decrease on anxiety and anger expression. Change in means from pre- to posttest did not support the hypothesis.
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