Effects of sublethal concentrations of atrazine and nitrate on metamorphosis of the African clawed frog

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dc.contributor.author Sullivan, Karen Brown en_US
dc.contributor.author Spence, Karla M. en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2012-01-24T17:50:40Z
dc.date.available 2012-01-24T17:50:40Z
dc.date.issued 2003-03 en_US
dc.identifier 12627652 en_US
dc.identifier 8308958 en_US
dc.identifier.citation Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC. 2003 Mar; 22(3): 627-35. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0730-7268 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620220323
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10057/4213
dc.description Click on the DOI link below to access the article (may not be free). en_US
dc.description.abstract Tadpoles of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) were exposed to sublethal concentrations of atrazine (0, 40, and 320 microg/L) and nitrate (0, 37, and 292 mg/L) from feeding stage to metamorphosis. A 3 x 3 factorial design was used to identify both single and interactive effects. At metamorphosis, tadpole weight, snout-vent length (SVL), and hematocrit were determined. Mean mortality was greater in tanks receiving 320 microg/L atrazine; nitrate had no effect on mortality. Significant differences for all mean traits at metamorphosis occurred among atrazine treatments; higher atrazine exposure increased time to metamorphosis and decreased weight, SVL, and hematocrit. Nitrate treatments were not significantly different. Significant interaction tests between atrazine and nitrate occurred for weight and SVL at metamorphosis; the specific type of interaction varied among treatments. Assuming an additive mixture model, at low atrazine (40 microg/L), the addition of 37 mg/L nitrate produced SVL values less than expected (a synergistic effect) while the addition of 292 mg/L nitrate yielded SVL values greater than expected (an antagonistic effect). A similar response was noted for tadpoles in the 320-microg/L atrazine treatments. These results indicate that environmentally realistic concentrations of atrazine exert a negative impact on amphibian metamorphosis. Also, this study suggests that mixtures of agricultural chemicals, even if sublethal, may exert negative and not necessarily consistent mixture effects. en_US
dc.language.iso eng en_US
dc.publisher John Wiley & Sons en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC en_US
dc.source NLM en_US
dc.subject Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't en_US
dc.subject.mesh Animals en_US
dc.subject.mesh Atrazine/toxicity en_US
dc.subject.mesh Body Weight/drug effects en_US
dc.subject.mesh Dose-Response Relationship, Drug en_US
dc.subject.mesh Drug Interactions en_US
dc.subject.mesh Hematocrit en_US
dc.subject.mesh Larva/growth & development en_US
dc.subject.mesh Metamorphosis, Biological/drug effects en_US
dc.subject.mesh Nitrates/toxicity en_US
dc.subject.mesh Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity en_US
dc.subject.mesh Xenopus laevis/growth & development en_US
dc.title Effects of sublethal concentrations of atrazine and nitrate on metamorphosis of the African clawed frog en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.description.version peer reviewed en_US
dc.rights.holder Copyright © 2003 SETAC en_US

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