Conduct problems and depressive symptom from ages 5 – 9: the additive and synergistic effects of parenting and child temperament
Boone, Linda Tellez
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The present study examined the additive and synergistic effects of parenting quality and the child temperament component, executive frontal control, on the development of conduct problems and depressive symptoms from entry to kindergarten to the 3rd – 4th grade transition. Participants were a community sample of 267 children, 133 girls and 134 boys and their parents. Parenting quality was assessed via two 120 minute videotaped observations and a structured interview. Child executive frontal control was measured via a series of behavioral tasks and classroom observation. Child adjustment was measured with the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form (Achenbach, 1991). Ratings of conduct problems and depressive symptoms based on parent and teacher report were examined separately using latent growth modeling and full information likelihood estimation in path analysis. Deficits in executive frontal control were related to chronic levels of both conduct problems and depressive symptoms across settings and related to growth of conduct problems and depressive symptoms only in the school setting. Coercive parenting was related to chronic levels of conduct problems at home and in the school setting while skilled parenting predicted lower chronic levels of school conduct problems and predicted diminution in the growth of conduct problems at school. Parenting and executive frontal control interacted and influenced chronic levels of conduct problems at school. These results support the hypothesis that executive frontal control and unskilled parenting are salient risk factors for the development of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in childhood.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Wichita State University, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Dept. of Psychology