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Indicators of effective breastfeeding and estimates of breast milk intake

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dc.contributor Wichita State University. School of Nursing en_US
dc.contributor.author Riordan, Janice M. en_US
dc.contributor.author Gill-Hopple, Kathleen en_US
dc.contributor.author Angeron, Judy en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2012-02-28T20:26:04Z
dc.date.available 2012-02-28T20:26:04Z
dc.date.issued 2005-11 en_US
dc.identifier 16280556 en_US
dc.identifier 8709498 en_US
dc.identifier 21/4/406 en_US
dc.identifier.citation Journal of human lactation : official journal of International Lactation Consultant Association. 2005 Nov; 21(4): 406-12. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0890-3344 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0890334405281032 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10057/4522
dc.description Click on the DOI link below to access the article (may not be free). en_US
dc.description.abstract The authors tested indicators of effective breastfeeding to identify those that provide reliable estimates of human milk intake. Human milk intake of 82 full-term infants was measured by test weights before and after feeding and compared with commonly used breastfeeding indicators: rooting, length of time before latch-on, latch-on, suckle, observable swallowing, and audible swallowing. Two models were tested: model 1, describing indicators at 96 hours postpartum, and model 2, describing indicators at >96 hours postpartum. Median (interquartile) milliliters of mother's milk consumed per feeding was 26 ml (range, 4-47) at 96 hours and 54 ml (range, 26-73) at >96 hours. Significant predictors of human milk intake in model 1 were rooting and observable swallowing (R2=26%, P<.01). In model 2, audible swallowing alone estimated human milk intake (R2=29%, P<.001). Observed swallowing and rooting during the first 4 days (96 hours) following birth and audible swallowing after that time should be included in the breastfeeding assessment of full-term infants. en_US
dc.format.extent 406-12 en_US
dc.language.iso eng en_US
dc.publisher Sage Publications en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Journal of Human Lactation : Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries J Hum Lact en_US
dc.source NLM en_US
dc.subject Multicenter Study en_US
dc.subject Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't en_US
dc.subject.mesh Adult en_US
dc.subject.mesh Age Factors en_US
dc.subject.mesh Body Weight/physiology en_US
dc.subject.mesh Breast Feeding en_US
dc.subject.mesh Female en_US
dc.subject.mesh Humans en_US
dc.subject.mesh Infant Behavior/physiology en_US
dc.subject.mesh Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena en_US
dc.subject.mesh Infant, Newborn en_US
dc.subject.mesh Lactation en_US
dc.subject.mesh Male en_US
dc.subject.mesh Prospective Studies en_US
dc.subject.mesh Time Factors en_US
dc.title Indicators of effective breastfeeding and estimates of breast milk intake en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.coverage.spacial United States en_US
dc.description.version peer reviewed en_US
dc.rights.holder Copyright © 2005 International Lactation Consultant Association en_US

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