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An exception to Darwin's syndrome: floral position, protogyny, and insect visitation in Besseya bullii (Scrophulariaceae)

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dc.contributor.author McKone, Mark J.
dc.contributor.author Ostertag, Rebecca
dc.contributor.author Rauscher, Jason T.
dc.contributor.author Heiser, David A.
dc.contributor.author Russell, F. Leland
dc.date.accessioned 2011-03-15T20:42:28Z
dc.date.available 2011-03-15T20:42:28Z
dc.date.issued 1995
dc.identifier.citation An exception to Darwin's Syndrome: Floral position, protogyny, and insect visitation in Besseya bullii (Scrophulariaceae) Mark J. McKone, Rebecca Ostertag, Jason T. Rauscher, David A. Heiser and F. Leland Russell Oecologia Vol. 101, No. 1 (1995), pp. 68-74 Published by: Springer in cooperation with International Association for Ecology
dc.identifier.issn 0029-8549
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10057/3413
dc.description Full text is not available due to publisher's copyright restrictions. Find this article in JSTOR: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4220854
dc.description.abstract Darwin pointed out that plants with vertical inflorescences are likely to be outcrossed if the inflorescence is acropetalous (flowers from the bottom up), the flowers are protandrous (pollen is dispersed before stigmas are receptive), and pollinators move upward on the inflorescence. This syndrome is common in species pollinated by bees and flies, and very few exceptions are known. We investigated flowering phenology and pollinator behavior in Besseya bullii (Scrophulariaceae) and found that it did not fit Darwin's syndrome. The vertical inflorescence was acropetalous but the flowers were distinctly protogynous, so flowers with newly receptive stigmas appeared on the inflorescence above those with dehiscing anthers. A number of small insects visited B. bullii; bees in the family Halictidae (Augochlorella striata and Dialictus spp.) were most common. When insects moved between gender phases within inflorescences, they moved up more often than down (61% versus 39% of observations, respectively) but this difference was only marginally significant. Most visits were to male-phase flowers only, and this preference was more pronounced for pollen-foraging insects than for nectar-foraging insects. B. bullii was self-compatible, so its flowering characteristics potentially could result in considerable self-pollination. However, an average of 38% of the lowermost flowers opened before any pollen was available on the same inflorescence; these "solo females" had a high probability of outcrossing (though fruit set was relatively low in the bottom portion of the inflorescence). Upper flowers may also be outcrossed because downward insect movement was not uncommon. Therefore protogyny in B. bullii may not necessarily lead to more selfing than would protandry. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Oecologia (1995) 101:68-74
dc.subject Besseya bullii en_US
dc.subject Pollination en_US
dc.subject Protogyny Halictidae en_US
dc.subject Foraging behavior en_US
dc.title An exception to Darwin's syndrome: floral position, protogyny, and insect visitation in Besseya bullii (Scrophulariaceae) en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.description.version Peer reviewed
dc.rights.holder © Springer-Verlag 1995

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